Difference between revisions of "International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights"

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Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI)
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{{Languages|International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights}}
of 16 December 1966
 
entry into force 23 March 1976, in accordance with Article 49
 
  
'''Preamble'''
 
  
The States Parties to the present Covenant,  
+
Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly Resolution 2200A (XXI), on December 16, 1966. Entered into force on March 23, 1976.
  
Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
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=Relevant Provisions of the ICCPR=
 
+
====Article 2====
Recognizing that these rights derive from the inherent dignity of the human person,
 
 
 
Recognizing that, in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the ideal of free human beings enjoying civil and political freedom and freedom from fear and want can only be achieved if conditions are created whereby everyone may enjoy his civil and political rights, as well as his economic, social and cultural rights,
 
 
 
Considering the obligation of States under the Charter of the United Nations to promote universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and freedoms,
 
 
 
Realizing that the individual, having duties to other individuals and to the community to which he belongs, is under a responsibility to strive for the promotion and observance of the rights recognized in the present Covenant,
 
 
 
Agree upon the following articles:
 
 
 
 
 
== PART I ==
 
 
'''Article 1'''
 
1. All peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.
 
 
 
2. All peoples may, for their own ends, freely dispose of their natural wealth and resources without prejudice to any obligations arising out of international economic co-operation, based upon the principle of mutual benefit, and international law. In no case may a people be deprived of its own means of subsistence.
 
 
 
3. The States Parties to the present Covenant, including those having responsibility for the administration of Non-Self-Governing and Trust Territories, shall promote the realization of the right of self-determination, and shall respect that right, in conformity with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations.
 
 
 
 
 
== PART II ==
 
 
'''Article 2'''
 
 
1. Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to respect and to ensure to all individuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction the rights recognized in the present Covenant, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.  
 
1. Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to respect and to ensure to all individuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction the rights recognized in the present Covenant, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.  
 
2. Where not already provided for by existing legislative or other measures, each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to take the necessary steps, in accordance with its constitutional processes and with the provisions of the present Covenant, to adopt such laws or other measures as may be necessary to give effect to the rights recognized in the present Covenant.
 
  
 
3. Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes:  
 
3. Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes:  
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(c) To ensure that the competent authorities shall enforce such remedies when granted.  
 
(c) To ensure that the competent authorities shall enforce such remedies when granted.  
 +
====Article 6====
 +
Right to life. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life.
  
'''Article 3'''
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====Article 7====
The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to ensure the equal right of men and women to the enjoyment of all civil and political rights set forth in the present Covenant.
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Prohibition of torture or curel, inhuman or degrading tratment or punishment.
 
 
'''Article 4'''
 
1 . In time of public emergency which threatens the life of the nation and the existence of which is officially proclaimed, the States Parties to the present Covenant may take measures derogating from their obligations under the present Covenant to the extent strictly required by the exigencies of the situation, provided that such measures are not inconsistent with their other obligations under international law and do not involve discrimination solely on the ground of race, colour, sex, language, religion or social origin.
 
 
 
2. No derogation from articles 6, 7, 8 (paragraphs I and 2), 11, 15, 16 and 18 may be made under this provision.  
 
  
3. Any State Party to the present Covenant availing itself of the right of derogation shall immediately inform the other States Parties to the present Covenant, through the intermediary of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, of the provisions from which it has derogated and of the reasons by which it was actuated. A further communication shall be made, through the same intermediary, on the date on which it terminates such derogation.
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====Article 9====
  
'''Article 5'''
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1. Right to liberty and security of the person. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention. No one shall be deprived of his liberty except on such grounds and in accordance with such procedure as are established by law.  
1. Nothing in the present Covenant may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms recognized herein or at their limitation to a greater extent than is provided for in the present Covenant.
 
 
 
2. There shall be no restriction upon or derogation from any of the fundamental human rights recognized or existing in any State Party to the present Covenant pursuant to law, conventions, regulations or custom on the pretext that the present Covenant does not recognize such rights or that it recognizes them to a lesser extent.
 
 
 
 
 
== PART III ==
 
 
'''Article 6'''
 
1. Every human being has the inherent right to life. This right shall be protected by law. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life.
 
 
 
2. In countries which have not abolished the death penalty, sentence of death may be imposed only for the most serious crimes in accordance with the law in force at the time of the commission of the crime and not contrary to the provisions of the present Covenant and to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. This penalty can only be carried out pursuant to a final judgement rendered by a competent court.
 
 
 
3. When deprivation of life constitutes the crime of genocide, it is understood that nothing in this article shall authorize any State Party to the present Covenant to derogate in any way from any obligation assumed under the provisions of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
 
 
 
4. Anyone sentenced to death shall have the right to seek pardon or commutation of the sentence. Amnesty, pardon or commutation of the sentence of death may be granted in all cases.
 
 
 
5. Sentence of death shall not be imposed for crimes committed by persons below eighteen years of age and shall not be carried out on pregnant women.
 
 
 
6. Nothing in this article shall be invoked to delay or to prevent the abolition of capital punishment by any State Party to the present Covenant.
 
 
 
'''Article 7'''
 
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. In particular, no one shall be subjected without his free consent to medical or scientific experimentation.
 
 
 
'''Article 8'''
 
1. No one shall be held in slavery; slavery and the slave-trade in all their forms shall be prohibited.
 
 
 
2. No one shall be held in servitude.
 
 
 
3.
 
 
 
(a) No one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour;
 
 
 
(b) Paragraph 3 (a) shall not be held to preclude, in countries where imprisonment with hard labour may be imposed as a punishment for a crime, the performance of hard labour in pursuance of a sentence to such punishment by a competent court;
 
 
 
(c) For the purpose of this paragraph the term "forced or compulsory labour" shall not include:
 
 
 
(i) Any work or service, not referred to in subparagraph (b), normally required of a person who is under detention in consequence of a lawful order of a court, or of a person during conditional release from such detention;
 
 
 
(ii) Any service of a military character and, in countries where conscientious objection is recognized, any national service required by law of conscientious objectors;
 
 
 
(iii) Any service exacted in cases of emergency or calamity threatening the life or well-being of the community;
 
 
 
(iv) Any work or service which forms part of normal civil obligations.
 
 
 
'''Article 9'''
 
1. Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention. No one shall be deprived of his liberty except on such grounds and in accordance with such procedure as are established by law.  
 
  
 
2. Anyone who is arrested shall be informed, at the time of arrest, of the reasons for his arrest and shall be promptly informed of any charges against him.  
 
2. Anyone who is arrested shall be informed, at the time of arrest, of the reasons for his arrest and shall be promptly informed of any charges against him.  
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5. Anyone who has been the victim of unlawful arrest or detention shall have an enforceable right to compensation.  
 
5. Anyone who has been the victim of unlawful arrest or detention shall have an enforceable right to compensation.  
  
'''Article 10'''
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====Article 10====
 +
 
 
1. All persons deprived of their liberty shall be treated with humanity and with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person.  
 
1. All persons deprived of their liberty shall be treated with humanity and with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person.  
  
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3. The penitentiary system shall comprise treatment of prisoners the essential aim of which shall be their reformation and social rehabilitation. Juvenile offenders shall be segregated from adults and be accorded treatment appropriate to their age and legal status.  
 
3. The penitentiary system shall comprise treatment of prisoners the essential aim of which shall be their reformation and social rehabilitation. Juvenile offenders shall be segregated from adults and be accorded treatment appropriate to their age and legal status.  
  
'''Article 11'''
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====Article 14====
No one shall be imprisoned merely on the ground of inability to fulfil a contractual obligation.
 
 
 
'''Article 12'''
 
1. Everyone lawfully within the territory of a State shall, within that territory, have the right to liberty of movement and freedom to choose his residence.
 
 
 
2. Everyone shall be free to leave any country, including his own.
 
  
3. The above-mentioned rights shall not be subject to any restrictions except those which are provided by law, are necessary to protect national security, public order (ordre public), public health or morals or the rights and freedoms of others, and are consistent with the other rights recognized in the present Covenant.
 
 
4. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of the right to enter his own country.
 
 
'''Article 13'''
 
An alien lawfully in the territory of a State Party to the present Covenant may be expelled therefrom only in pursuance of a decision reached in accordance with law and shall, except where compelling reasons of national security otherwise require, be allowed to submit the reasons against his expulsion and to have his case reviewed by, and be represented for the purpose before, the competent authority or a person or persons especially designated by the competent authority.
 
 
'''Article 14'''
 
 
1. All persons shall be equal before the courts and tribunals. In the determination of any criminal charge against him, or of his rights and obligations in a suit at law, everyone shall be entitled to a fair and public hearing by a competent, independent and impartial tribunal established by law. The press and the public may be excluded from all or part of a trial for reasons of morals, public order (ordre public) or national security in a democratic society, or when the interest of the private lives of the parties so requires, or to the extent strictly necessary in the opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interests of justice; but any judgement rendered in a criminal case or in a suit at law shall be made public except where the interest of juvenile persons otherwise requires or the proceedings concern matrimonial disputes or the guardianship of children.  
 
1. All persons shall be equal before the courts and tribunals. In the determination of any criminal charge against him, or of his rights and obligations in a suit at law, everyone shall be entitled to a fair and public hearing by a competent, independent and impartial tribunal established by law. The press and the public may be excluded from all or part of a trial for reasons of morals, public order (ordre public) or national security in a democratic society, or when the interest of the private lives of the parties so requires, or to the extent strictly necessary in the opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interests of justice; but any judgement rendered in a criminal case or in a suit at law shall be made public except where the interest of juvenile persons otherwise requires or the proceedings concern matrimonial disputes or the guardianship of children.  
  
 
2. Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall have the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law.  
 
2. Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall have the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law.  
  
3. In the determination of any criminal charge against him, everyone shall be entitled to the following minimum guarantees, in full equality: (a) To be informed promptly and in detail in a language which he understands of the nature and cause of the charge against him;  
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3. In the determination of any criminal charge against him, everyone shall be entitled to the following minimum guarantees, in full equality:  
 +
 
 +
(a) To be informed promptly and in detail in a language which he understands of the nature and cause of the charge against him;  
  
 
(b) To have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence and to communicate with counsel of his own choosing;  
 
(b) To have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence and to communicate with counsel of his own choosing;  
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4. In the case of juvenile persons, the procedure shall be such as will take account of their age and the desirability of promoting their rehabilitation.  
 
4. In the case of juvenile persons, the procedure shall be such as will take account of their age and the desirability of promoting their rehabilitation.  
 +
 
5. Everyone convicted of a crime shall have the right to his conviction and sentence being reviewed by a higher tribunal according to law.  
 
5. Everyone convicted of a crime shall have the right to his conviction and sentence being reviewed by a higher tribunal according to law.  
  
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7. No one shall be liable to be tried or punished again for an offence for which he has already been finally convicted or acquitted in accordance with the law and penal procedure of each country.  
 
7. No one shall be liable to be tried or punished again for an offence for which he has already been finally convicted or acquitted in accordance with the law and penal procedure of each country.  
  
'''Article 15'''
+
====Article 15====
 +
 
1 . No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time when the criminal offence was committed. If, subsequent to the commission of the offence, provision is made by law for the imposition of the lighter penalty, the offender shall benefit thereby.  
 
1 . No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time when the criminal offence was committed. If, subsequent to the commission of the offence, provision is made by law for the imposition of the lighter penalty, the offender shall benefit thereby.  
  
 
2. Nothing in this article shall prejudice the trial and punishment of any person for any act or omission which, at the time when it was committed, was criminal according to the general principles of law recognized by the community of nations.  
 
2. Nothing in this article shall prejudice the trial and punishment of any person for any act or omission which, at the time when it was committed, was criminal according to the general principles of law recognized by the community of nations.  
  
'''Article 16'''
+
====Article 16====
Everyone shall have the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.  
+
Right to be recognized everywhere as a person before the law.  
 +
 
 +
====Article 17====
  
'''Article 17'''
 
 
1. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation.  
 
1. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation.  
  
 
2. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.  
 
2. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.  
  
'''Article 18'''
+
====Article 18====
1. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right shall include freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice, and freedom, either individually or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching.  
+
Right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.  
  
2. No one shall be subject to coercion which would impair his freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice.  
+
====Article 19====
 +
Freedom of opinion.  
  
3. Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health, or morals or the fundamental rights and freedoms of others.  
+
====Article 21====
 +
Right of peaceful assembly.
  
4. The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to have respect for the liberty of parents and, when applicable, legal guardians to ensure the religious and moral education of their children in conformity with their own convictions.
+
====Article 22====
'''
+
Right to freedom of association with others, right to form trade unions.  
Article 19'''
 
1. Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference.  
 
  
2. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice.
+
====Article 25====
 
+
3. The exercise of the rights provided for in paragraph 2 of this article carries with it special duties and responsibilities. It may therefore be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary:
+
Every citizen shall have the right to take part in the conduct of public affairs.
 
+
Right to equal access to public service in his country.  
(a) For respect of the rights or reputations of others;
 
 
 
(b) For the protection of national security or of public order (ordre public), or of public health or morals.
 
 
 
'''Article 20'''
 
1. Any propaganda for war shall be prohibited by law.
 
 
 
2. Any advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence shall be prohibited by law.
 
 
 
'''Article 21'''
 
The right of peaceful assembly shall be recognized. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those imposed in conformity with the law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public order (ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.  
 
 
 
'''Article 22'''
 
1. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of association with others, including the right to form and join trade unions for the protection of his interests.  
 
  
2. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those which are prescribed by law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public order (ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others. This article shall not prevent the imposition of lawful restrictions on members of the armed forces and of the police in their exercise of this right.
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====Article 26====
  
3. Nothing in this article shall authorize States Parties to the International Labour Organisation Convention of 1948 concerning Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize to take legislative measures which would prejudice, or to apply the law in such a manner as to prejudice, the guarantees provided for in that Convention.
 
 
'''Article 23'''
 
1. The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.
 
 
2. The right of men and women of marriageable age to marry and to found a family shall be recognized.
 
 
3. No marriage shall be entered into without the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
 
 
4. States Parties to the present Covenant shall take appropriate steps to ensure equality of rights and responsibilities of spouses as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. In the case of dissolution, provision shall be made for the necessary protection of any children.
 
 
'''Article 24'''
 
1. Every child shall have, without any discrimination as to race, colour, sex, language, religion, national or social origin, property or birth, the right to such measures of protection as are required by his status as a minor, on the part of his family, society and the State.
 
 
2. Every child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have a name.
 
 
3. Every child has the right to acquire a nationality.
 
 
'''Article 25'''
 
Every citizen shall have the right and the opportunity, without any of the distinctions mentioned in article 2 and without unreasonable restrictions:
 
 
(a) To take part in the conduct of public affairs, directly or through freely chosen representatives;
 
 
(b) To vote and to be elected at genuine periodic elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret ballot, guaranteeing the free expression of the will of the electors;
 
 
(c) To have access, on general terms of equality, to public service in his country.
 
 
'''Article 26'''
 
 
All persons are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to the equal protection of the law. In this respect, the law shall prohibit any discrimination and guarantee to all persons equal and effective protection against discrimination on any ground such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.  
 
All persons are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to the equal protection of the law. In this respect, the law shall prohibit any discrimination and guarantee to all persons equal and effective protection against discrimination on any ground such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.  
  
'''Article 27'''
+
=Status of Signature, Ratification, Accession to the ICCPR=
In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities exist, persons belonging to such minorities shall not be denied the right, in community with the other members of their group, to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practise their own religion, or to use their own language.
+
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
+
|-
 
+
! Country
== PART IV ==
+
! Signature
+
! Ratification/Accession
'''Article 28'''
+
|-
1. There shall be established a Human Rights Committee (hereafter referred to in the present Covenant as the Committee). It shall consist of eighteen members and shall carry out the functions hereinafter provided.
+
| Afghanistan
 
+
| -
2. The Committee shall be composed of nationals of the States Parties to the present Covenant who shall be persons of high moral character and recognized competence in the field of human rights, consideration being given to the usefulness of the participation of some persons having legal experience.
+
| 24 January 1983
 
+
|-
3. The members of the Committee shall be elected and shall serve in their personal capacity.
+
| Albania
 
+
| -
'''Article 29'''
+
| 4 October 1991
1. The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from a list of persons possessing the qualifications prescribed in article 28 and nominated for the purpose by the States Parties to the present Covenant.
+
|-
 
+
| Algeria
2. Each State Party to the present Covenant may nominate not more than two persons. These persons shall be nationals of the nominating State.
+
| 10 December 1968
 
+
| 12 September 1989
3. A person shall be eligible for renomination.
+
|-
 
+
| Andorra
'''Article 30'''
+
| 5 August 2002
1. The initial election shall be held no later than six months after the date of the entry into force of the present Covenant.
+
| 22 September 2006
 
+
|-
2. At least four months before the date of each election to the Committee, other than an election to fill a vacancy declared in accordance with article 34, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall address a written invitation to the States Parties to the present Covenant to submit their nominations for membership of the Committee within three months.
+
| Angola
 
+
| -
3. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall prepare a list in alphabetical order of all the persons thus nominated, with an indication of the States Parties which have nominated them, and shall submit it to the States Parties to the present Covenant no later than one month before the date of each election.
+
| 10 January 1992
 
+
|-
4. Elections of the members of the Committee shall be held at a meeting of the States Parties to the present Covenant convened by the Secretary General of the United Nations at the Headquarters of the United Nations. At that meeting, for which two thirds of the States Parties to the present Covenant shall constitute a quorum, the persons elected to the Committee shall be those nominees who obtain the largest number of votes and an absolute majority of the votes of the representatives of States Parties present and voting.
+
| Argentina
 
+
| 19 February 1968
'''Article 31'''
+
| 8 August 1986
1. The Committee may not include more than one national of the same State.
+
|-
 
+
| Armenia
2. In the election of the Committee, consideration shall be given to equitable geographical distribution of membership and to the representation of the different forms of civilization and of the principal legal systems.
+
| -
 
+
| 23 June 1993
'''Article 32'''
+
|-
1. The members of the Committee shall be elected for a term of four years. They shall be eligible for re-election if renominated. However, the terms of nine of the members elected at the first election shall expire at the end of two years; immediately after the first election, the names of these nine members shall be chosen by lot by the Chairman of the meeting referred to in article 30, paragraph 4.
+
| Australia
2. Elections at the expiry of office shall be held in accordance with the preceding articles of this part of the present Covenant.
+
| 18 December 1972
 
+
| 13 August 1980
'''Article 33'''
+
|-
1. If, in the unanimous opinion of the other members, a member of the Committee has ceased to carry out his functions for any cause other than absence of a temporary character, the Chairman of the Committee shall notify the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall then declare the seat of that member to be vacant.
+
| Austria
 
+
| 10 December 1973
2. In the event of the death or the resignation of a member of the Committee, the Chairman shall immediately notify the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall declare the seat vacant from the date of death or the date on which the resignation takes effect.
+
| 10 December 1978
 
+
|-
'''Article 34'''
+
| Azerbaijan
1. When a vacancy is declared in accordance with article 33 and if the term of office of the member to be replaced does not expire within six months of the declaration of the vacancy, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall notify each of the States Parties to the present Covenant, which may within two months submit nominations in accordance with article 29 for the purpose of filling the vacancy.
+
| -
 
+
| 13 August 1992
2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall prepare a list in alphabetical order of the persons thus nominated and shall submit it to the States Parties to the present Covenant. The election to fill the vacancy shall then take place in accordance with the relevant provisions of this part of the present Covenant.
+
|-
 
+
| Bahamas
3. A member of the Committee elected to fill a vacancy declared in accordance with article 33 shall hold office for the remainder of the term of the member who vacated the seat on the Committee under the provisions of that article.
+
| 4 December 2008
 
+
| 23 December 2008
'''Article 35'''
+
|-
The members of the Committee shall, with the approval of the General Assembly of the United Nations, receive emoluments from United Nations resources on such terms and conditions as the General Assembly may decide, having regard to the importance of the Committee's responsibilities.
+
| Bahrain
 
+
| -
'''Article 36'''
+
| 20 September 2006
The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the necessary staff and facilities for the effective performance of the functions of the Committee under the present Covenant.
+
|-
 
+
| Bangladesh
'''Article 37'''
+
| -
1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall convene the initial meeting of the Committee at the Headquarters of the United Nations.
+
| 6 September 2000
 
+
|-
2. After its initial meeting, the Committee shall meet at such times as shall be provided in its rules of procedure.
+
| Barbardos
 
+
| -
3. The Committee shall normally meet at the Headquarters of the United Nations or at the United Nations Office at Geneva.
+
| 5 January 1973
 
+
|-
'''Article 38'''
+
| Belarus
Every member of the Committee shall, before taking up his duties, make a solemn declaration in open committee that he will perform his functions impartially and conscientiously.
+
| 19 March 1968
 
+
| 12 November 1973
'''Article 39'''
+
|-
1. The Committee shall elect its officers for a term of two years. They may be re-elected.
+
| Belgium
 
+
| 10 December 1968
2. The Committee shall establish its own rules of procedure, but these rules shall provide, inter alia, that:
+
| 21 April 1983
 
+
|-
(a) Twelve members shall constitute a quorum;
+
| Belize
 
+
| -
(b) Decisions of the Committee shall be made by a majority vote of the members present.
+
| 10 June 1996
 
+
|-
'''Article 40'''
+
| Benin
1. The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to submit reports on the measures they have adopted which give effect to the rights recognized herein and on the progress made in the enjoyment of those rights: (a) Within one year of the entry into force of the present Covenant for the States Parties concerned;
+
| -
 
+
| 12 March 1992
(b) Thereafter whenever the Committee so requests.
+
|-
 
+
| Bolivia
2. All reports shall be submitted to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall transmit them to the Committee for consideration. Reports shall indicate the factors and difficulties, if any, affecting the implementation of the present Covenant.
+
| -
 
+
| 12 August 1982
3. The Secretary-General of the United Nations may, after consultation with the Committee, transmit to the specialized agencies concerned copies of such parts of the reports as may fall within their field of competence.
+
|-
 
+
|Bosnia and Herzegovina
4. The Committee shall study the reports submitted by the States Parties to the present Covenant. It shall transmit its reports, and such general comments as it may consider appropriate, to the States Parties. The Committee may also transmit to the Economic and Social Council these comments along with the copies of the reports it has received from States Parties to the present Covenant.
+
| -
 
+
| 1 September 1993
5. The States Parties to the present Covenant may submit to the Committee observations on any comments that may be made in accordance with paragraph 4 of this article.
+
|-
 
+
| Botswana
'''Article 41'''
+
| 8 September 2000
1. A State Party to the present Covenant may at any time declare under this article that it recognizes the competence of the Committee to receive and consider communications to the effect that a State Party claims that another State Party is not fulfilling its obligations under the present Covenant. Communications under this article may be received and considered only if submitted by a State Party which has made a declaration recognizing in regard to itself the competence of the Committee. No communication shall be received by the Committee if it concerns a State Party which has not made such a declaration. Communications received under this article shall be dealt with in accordance with the following procedure:
+
| 8 September 2000
 
+
|-
(a) If a State Party to the present Covenant considers that another State Party is not giving effect to the provisions of the present Covenant, it may, by written communication, bring the matter to the attention of that State Party. Within three months after the receipt of the communication the receiving State shall afford the State which sent the communication an explanation, or any other statement in writing clarifying the matter which should include, to the extent possible and pertinent, reference to domestic procedures and remedies taken, pending, or available in the matter;
+
| Brazil
 
+
| -
(b) If the matter is not adjusted to the satisfaction of both States Parties concerned within six months after the receipt by the receiving State of the initial communication, either State shall have the right to refer the matter to the Committee, by notice given to the Committee and to the other State;
+
| 24 January 1992
 
+
|-
(c) The Committee shall deal with a matter referred to it only after it has ascertained that all available domestic remedies have been invoked and exhausted in the matter, in conformity with the generally recognized principles of international law. This shall not be the rule where the application of the remedies is unreasonably prolonged;
+
| Bulgaria
 
+
| 8 October 1968
(d) The Committee shall hold closed meetings when examining communications under this article;
+
| 21 September 1970
 
+
|-
(e) Subject to the provisions of subparagraph (c), the Committee shall make available its good offices to the States Parties concerned with a view to a friendly solution of the matter on the basis of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms as recognized in the present Covenant;
+
| Burkina Faso
 
+
| -
(f) In any matter referred to it, the Committee may call upon the States Parties concerned, referred to in subparagraph (b), to supply any relevant information;
+
| 4 January 1999
 
+
|-
(g) The States Parties concerned, referred to in subparagraph (b), shall have the right to be represented when the matter is being considered in the Committee and to make submissions orally and/or in writing;
+
| Burundi
 
+
| -
(h) The Committee shall, within twelve months after the date of receipt of notice under subparagraph (b), submit a report:
+
| 9 May 1990
 
+
|-
(i) If a solution within the terms of subparagraph (e) is reached, the Committee shall confine its report to a brief statement of the facts and of the solution reached;
+
| Cambodia
 
+
| 17 October 1980
(ii) If a solution within the terms of subparagraph (e) is not reached, the Committee shall confine its report to a brief statement of the facts; the written submissions and record of the oral submissions made by the States Parties concerned shall be attached to the report. In every matter, the report shall be communicated to the States Parties concerned.
+
| 26 May 1992
 
+
|-
2. The provisions of this article shall come into force when ten States Parties to the present Covenant have made declarations under paragraph I of this article. Such declarations shall be deposited by the States Parties with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall transmit copies thereof to the other States Parties. A declaration may be withdrawn at any time by notification to the Secretary-General. Such a withdrawal shall not prejudice the consideration of any matter which is the subject of a communication already transmitted under this article; no further communication by any State Party shall be received after the notification of withdrawal of the declaration has been received by the Secretary-General, unless the State Party concerned has made a new declaration.
+
| Cameroon
 
+
| -
'''Article 42'''
+
| 27 June 1984
1.
+
|-
 
+
| Canada
(a) If a matter referred to the Committee in accordance with article 41 is not resolved to the satisfaction of the States Parties concerned, the Committee may, with the prior consent of the States Parties concerned, appoint an ad hoc Conciliation Commission (hereinafter referred to as the Commission). The good offices of the Commission shall be made available to the States Parties concerned with a view to an amicable solution of the matter on the basis of respect for the present Covenant;
+
| -
 
+
| 19 May 1976
(b) The Commission shall consist of five persons acceptable to the States Parties concerned. If the States Parties concerned fail to reach agreement within three months on all or part of the composition of the Commission, the members of the Commission concerning whom no agreement has been reached shall be elected by secret ballot by a two-thirds majority vote of the Committee from among its members.
+
|-
 
+
| Cape Verde
2. The members of the Commission shall serve in their personal capacity. They shall not be nationals of the States Parties concerned, or of a State not Party to the present Covenant, or of a State Party which has not made a declaration under article 41.
+
| -
 
+
| 6 August 1993
3. The Commission shall elect its own Chairman and adopt its own rules of procedure.
+
|-
 
+
| Central African Republic
4. The meetings of the Commission shall normally be held at the Headquarters of the United Nations or at the United Nations Office at Geneva. However, they may be held at such other convenient places as the Commission may determine in consultation with the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the States Parties concerned.
+
| -
 
+
| 8 May 1981
5. The secretariat provided in accordance with article 36 shall also service the commissions appointed under this article.
+
|-
 
+
| Chad
6. The information received and collated by the Committee shall be made available to the Commission and the Commission may call upon the States Parties concerned to supply any other relevant information.
+
| -
 
+
| 9 June 1995
7. When the Commission has fully considered the matter, but in any event not later than twelve months after having been seized of the matter, it shall submit to the Chairman of the Committee a report for communication to the States Parties concerned:
+
|-
 
+
| Chile
(a) If the Commission is unable to complete its consideration of the matter within twelve months, it shall confine its report to a brief statement of the status of its consideration of the matter;
+
| 16 September 1969
 
+
| 10 February 1972
(b) If an amicable solution to the matter on tie basis of respect for human rights as recognized in the present Covenant is reached, the Commission shall confine its report to a brief statement of the facts and of the solution reached;
+
|-
 
+
| China
(c) If a solution within the terms of subparagraph (b) is not reached, the Commission's report shall embody its findings on all questions of fact relevant to the issues between the States Parties concerned, and its views on the possibilities of an amicable solution of the matter. This report shall also contain the written submissions and a record of the oral submissions made by the States Parties concerned;
+
| 5 October 1998
 
+
| -
(d) If the Commission's report is submitted under subparagraph (c), the States Parties concerned shall, within three months of the receipt of the report, notify the Chairman of the Committee whether or not they accept the contents of the report of the Commission.
+
|-
 
+
| Colombia
8. The provisions of this article are without prejudice to the responsibilities of the Committee under article 41.
+
| 21 December 1966
 
+
| 29 October 1969
9. The States Parties concerned shall share equally all the expenses of the members of the Commission in accordance with estimates to be provided by the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
+
|-
 
+
| Comoros
10. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be empowered to pay the expenses of the members of the Commission, if necessary, before reimbursement by the States Parties concerned, in accordance with paragraph 9 of this article.
+
| 25 September 2008
 
+
| -
'''Article 43'''
+
|-
The members of the Committee, and of the ad hoc conciliation commissions which may be appointed under article 42, shall be entitled to the facilities, privileges and immunities of experts on mission for the United Nations as laid down in the relevant sections of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations.
+
| Congo
 
+
| -
'''Article 44'''
+
| 5 October 1983
The provisions for the implementation of the present Covenant shall apply without prejudice to the procedures prescribed in the field of human rights by or under the constituent instruments and the conventions of the United Nations and of the specialized agencies and shall not prevent the States Parties to the present Covenant from having recourse to other procedures for settling a dispute in accordance with general or special international agreements in force between them.
+
|-
 
+
| Costa Rica
Article 45
+
| 19 December 1966
The Committee shall submit to the General Assembly of the United Nations, through the Economic and Social Council, an annual report on its activities.
+
| 29 November 1968
 
+
|-
 
+
| Côte d'Ivoire
== PART V ==
+
| -
+
| 26 March 1992
'''Article 46'''
+
|-
Nothing in the present Covenant shall be interpreted as impairing the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and of the constitutions of the specialized agencies which define the respective responsibilities of the various organs of the United Nations and of the specialized agencies in regard to the matters dealt with in the present Covenant.
+
| Croatia
 
+
| -
'''Article 47'''
+
| 12 October 1992
Nothing in the present Covenant shall be interpreted as impairing the inherent right of all peoples to enjoy and utilize fully and freely their natural wealth and resources.
+
|-
 
+
| Cuba
 
+
| 28 February 2008
== PART VI ==
+
| -
+
|-
'''Article 48'''
+
| Cyprus
1. The present Covenant is open for signature by any State Member of the United Nations or member of any of its specialized agencies, by any State Party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice, and by any other State which has been invited by the General Assembly of the United Nations to become a Party to the present Covenant.
+
| 19 December 1966
 
+
| 15 April 1992
2. The present Covenant is subject to ratification. Instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
+
|-
 
+
| Czech Republic
3. The present Covenant shall be open to accession by any State referred to in paragraph 1 of this article.
+
| -
 
+
| 22 February 1993
4. Accession shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument of accession with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
+
|-
 
+
| Democratic Republic of the Congo
5. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all States which have signed this Covenant or acceded to it of the deposit of each instrument of ratification or accession.
+
| -
 
+
| 14 September 1981
'''Article 49'''
+
|-
1. The present Covenant shall enter into force three months after the date of the deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the thirty-fifth instrument of ratification or instrument of accession.
+
| Denmark
 
+
| 20 March 1968
2. For each State ratifying the present Covenant or acceding to it after the deposit of the thirty-fifth instrument of ratification or instrument of accession, the present Covenant shall enter into force three months after the date of the deposit of its own instrument of ratification or instrument of accession.
+
| 6 January 1972
 
+
|-
'''Article 50'''
+
| Djibouti
The provisions of the present Covenant shall extend to all parts of federal States without any limitations or exceptions.
+
| -
 
+
| 5 November 2002
'''Article 51'''
+
|-
1. Any State Party to the present Covenant may propose an amendment and file it with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall thereupon communicate any proposed amendments to the States Parties to the present Covenant with a request that they notify him whether they favour a conference of States Parties for the purpose of considering and voting upon the proposals. In the event that at least one third of the States Parties favours such a conference, the Secretary-General shall convene the conference under the auspices of the United Nations. Any amendment adopted by a majority of the States Parties present and voting at the conference shall be submitted to the General Assembly of the United Nations for approval.
+
| Dominica
 
+
| -
2. Amendments shall come into force when they have been approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations and accepted by a two-thirds majority of the States Parties to the present Covenant in accordance with their respective constitutional processes. 3. When amendments come into force, they shall be binding on those States Parties which have accepted them, other States Parties still being bound by the provisions of the present Covenant and any earlier amendment which they have accepted.
+
| 17 June 1993
 
+
|-
'''Article 52'''
+
| Dominican Republic
1. Irrespective of the notifications made under article 48, paragraph 5, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all States referred to in paragraph I of the same article of the following particulars:
+
| -
 
+
| 4 January 1978
(a) Signatures, ratifications and accessions under article 48;
+
|-
 
+
| Ecuador
(b) The date of the entry into force of the present Covenant under article 49 and the date of the entry into force of any amendments under article 51.
+
| 4 April 1968
 
+
| 6 March 1969
'''Article 53'''
+
|-
1. The present Covenant, of which the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the United Nations.
+
| Egypt
 
+
| 4 August 1967
2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall transmit certified copies of the present Covenant to all States referred to in article 48.
+
| 14 January 1982
 
+
|-
 +
| El Salvador
 +
| 21 September 1967
 +
| 30 November 1979
 +
|-
 +
| Equatorial Guinea
 +
| -
 +
| 25 September 1987
 +
|-
 +
| Eritrea
 +
| -
 +
| 22 January 2002
 +
|-
 +
| Estonia
 +
| -
 +
| 21 October 1991
 +
|-
 +
| Ethiopia
 +
| -
 +
| 11 June 1993
 +
|-
 +
| Finland
 +
| 11 October 1967
 +
| 19 August 1975
 +
|-
 +
| France
 +
| -
 +
| 4 November 1980
 +
|-
 +
| Gabon
 +
| -
 +
| 21 January 1983
 +
|-
 +
| Gambia
 +
| -
 +
| 22 March 1979
 +
|-
 +
| Georgia
 +
| -
 +
| 3 May 1994
 +
|-
 +
| Germany
 +
| 9 October 1968
 +
| 17 December 1973
 +
|-
 +
| Ghana
 +
| 7 September 2000
 +
| 7 September 2000
 +
|-
 +
| Greece
 +
| -
 +
| 5 May 1997
 +
|-
 +
| Grenada
 +
| -
 +
| 6 September 1991
 +
|-
 +
| Guatemala
 +
| -
 +
| 5 May 1992
 +
|-
 +
| Guinea
 +
| 28 February 1967
 +
| 24 January 1978
 +
|-
 +
| Guinea Bissau
 +
| 12 September 2000
 +
| 1 November 2010
 +
|-
 +
| Guyana
 +
| 22 August 1968
 +
| 15 February 1977
 +
|-
 +
| Haiti
 +
| -
 +
| 6 February 1991
 +
|-
 +
| Honduras
 +
| 19 December 1966
 +
| 25 August 1997
 +
|-
 +
| Hungary
 +
| 25 March 1969
 +
| 17 January 1974
 +
|-
 +
| Iceland
 +
| 30 December 1968
 +
| 22 August 1979
 +
|-
 +
| India
 +
| -
 +
| 10 April 1979
 +
|-
 +
| Indonesia
 +
| -
 +
| 23 February 2006
 +
|-
 +
| Iran
 +
| 4 April 1968
 +
| 24 June 1975
 +
|-
 +
| Iraq
 +
| 18 February 1969
 +
| 25 January 1971
 +
|-
 +
| Ireland
 +
| 1 October 1973
 +
| 8 December 1989
 +
|-
 +
| Israel
 +
| 19 December 1966
 +
| 3 October 1991
 +
|-
 +
| Italy
 +
| 18 January 1967
 +
| 15 September 1978
 +
|-
 +
| Jamaica
 +
| 19 December 1966
 +
| 3 October 1975
 +
|-
 +
| Japan
 +
| 30 May 1978
 +
| 21 June 1979
 +
|-
 +
| Jordan
 +
| 30 June 1972
 +
| 28 May 1975
 +
|-
 +
| Kazakhstan
 +
| 2 December 2003
 +
| 24 January 2006
 +
|-
 +
| Kenya
 +
| -
 +
| 1 May 1972
 +
|-
 +
| Kuwait
 +
| -
 +
| 21 May 1996
 +
|-
 +
| Kyrgyzstan
 +
| -
 +
| 7 October 1994
 +
|-
 +
| Lao People's Democratic Republic
 +
| 7 December 2000
 +
| 25 September 2009
 +
|-
 +
| Latvia
 +
| -
 +
| 14 April 1994
 +
|-
 +
| Lebanon
 +
| -
 +
| 3 November 1972
 +
|-
 +
| Lesotho
 +
| -
 +
| 9 September 1992
 +
|-
 +
| Liberia
 +
| 18 April 1967
 +
| 22 September 2004
 +
|-
 +
| Libyan Ara Jamahiriya
 +
| -
 +
| 15 May 1970
 +
|-
 +
| Liechtenstien
 +
| -
 +
| 10 December 1998
 +
|-
 +
| Lithuania
 +
| -
 +
| 20 November 1991
 +
|-
 +
| Luxembourg
 +
| 26 November 1974
 +
| 18 August 1983
 +
|-
 +
| Magadascar
 +
| 17 September 1969
 +
| 21 June 1971
 +
|-
 +
| Malawi
 +
| -
 +
| 22 December 1993
 +
|-
 +
| Maldives
 +
| -
 +
| 19 September 2006
 +
|-
 +
| Mali
 +
| -
 +
| 16 July 1974
 +
|-
 +
| Malta
 +
| -
 +
| 13 September 1990
 +
|-
 +
| Mauritania
 +
| -
 +
| 17 November 2004
 +
|-
 +
| Mauritius
 +
| -
 +
| 12 December 1973
 +
|-
 +
| Mexico
 +
| -
 +
| 23 March 1981
 +
|-
 +
| Monaco
 +
| 26 June 1997
 +
| 28 August 1997
 +
|-
 +
| Mongolia
 +
| 5 June 1968
 +
| 18 November 1974
 +
|-
 +
| Montenegro
 +
| -
 +
| 23 October 2006
 +
|-
 +
| Morocco
 +
| 19 January 1977
 +
| 3 May 1979
 +
|-
 +
| Mozambique
 +
| -
 +
| 21 July 1993
 +
|-
 +
| Namibia
 +
| -
 +
| 28 November 1994
 +
|-
 +
| Nauru
 +
| 12 November 2001
 +
| -
 +
|-
 +
| Nepal
 +
| -
 +
| 14 May 1991
 +
|-
 +
| Netherlands
 +
| 25 June 1969
 +
| 11 December 1978
 +
|-
 +
| New Zealand
 +
| 12 November 1968
 +
| 28 December 1979
 +
|-
 +
| Nicaragua
 +
| -
 +
| 12 March 1980
 +
|-
 +
| Niger
 +
| -
 +
| 7 March 1986
 +
|-
 +
| Nigeria
 +
| -
 +
| 29 July 1993
 +
|-
 +
| Norway
 +
| 20 March 1968
 +
| 13 September 1972
 +
|-
 +
| Pakistan
 +
| 17 April 2008
 +
| 23 June 2010
 +
|-
 +
| Palau
 +
| 20 September 2011
 +
| -
 +
|-
 +
| Panama
 +
| 27 July 1976
 +
| 8 March 1977
 +
|-
 +
| Papua New Guinea
 +
| -
 +
| 21 July 2008
 +
|-
 +
| Paraguay
 +
| -
 +
| 10 June 1992
 +
|-
 +
| Peru
 +
| 11 August 1977
 +
| 28 April 1978
 +
|-
 +
| Philippines
 +
| 19 December 1966
 +
| 23 October 1986
 +
|-
 +
| Poland
 +
| 2 March 1967
 +
| 18 March 1977
 +
|-
 +
| Portugal
 +
| 7 October 1976
 +
| 15 June 1978
 +
|-
 +
| Republic of Korea
 +
| -
 +
| 10 April 1990
 +
|-
 +
| Republic of Moldova
 +
| -
 +
| 26 January 1993
 +
|-
 +
| Romania
 +
| 27 June 1968
 +
| 9 December 1974
 +
|-
 +
| Russian Federation
 +
| 18 March 1968
 +
| 16 October 1973
 +
|-
 +
| Rwanda
 +
| -
 +
| 16 April 1975
 +
|-
 +
| Samoa
 +
| -
 +
| 15 February 2008
 +
|-
 +
| San Marino
 +
| -
 +
| 18 October 1985
 +
|-
 +
| Sao Tome and Principe
 +
| 31 October 1995
 +
| -
 +
|-
 +
| Senegal
 +
| 6 July 1970
 +
| 13 February 1978
 +
|-
 +
| Serbia
 +
| -
 +
| 12 March 2001
 +
|-
 +
| Seychelles
 +
| -
 +
| 5 May 1992
 +
|-
 +
| Sierra Leone
 +
| -
 +
| 23 August 1996
 +
|-
 +
| Slovakia
 +
| -
 +
| 28 May 1993
 +
|-
 +
| Slovenia
 +
| -
 +
| 6 July 1992
 +
|-
 +
| Somalia
 +
| -
 +
| 24 January 1990
 +
|-
 +
| South Africa
 +
| 3 October 1994
 +
| 10 December 1998
 +
|-
 +
| Spain
 +
| 28 September 1976
 +
| 27 April 1977
 +
|-
 +
| Sri Lanka
 +
| -
 +
| 11 June 1980
 +
|-
 +
| St Lucia
 +
| 22 September 2011
 +
| -
 +
|-
 +
| St Vincent and the Grenadines
 +
| -
 +
| 9 November 1981
 +
|-
 +
| Sudan
 +
| -
 +
| 18 March 1986
 +
|-
 +
| Suriname
 +
| -
 +
| 28 December 1976
 +
|-
 +
| Swaziland
 +
| -
 +
| 26 March 2004
 +
|-
 +
| Sweden
 +
| 29 September 1967
 +
| 6 December 1971
 +
|-
 +
| Switzerland
 +
| -
 +
| 18 June 1992
 +
|-
 +
| Syrian Arab Republic
 +
| -
 +
| 21 April 1969
 +
|-
 +
| Tajikistan
 +
| -
 +
| 4 January 1999
 +
|-
 +
| Thailand
 +
| -
 +
| 29 October 1996
 +
|-
 +
| The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
 +
| -
 +
| 18 January 1994
 +
|-
 +
| Timor Leste
 +
| -
 +
| 18 September 2003
 +
|-
 +
| Togo
 +
| -
 +
| 24 May 1984
 +
|-
 +
| Trinidad and Tobago
 +
| -
 +
| 21 December 1978
 +
|-
 +
| Tunisia
 +
| 30 April 1968
 +
| 18 March 1969
 +
|-
 +
| Turkey
 +
| 15 August 2000
 +
| 23 September 2003
 +
|-
 +
| Turkmenistan
 +
| -
 +
| 1 May 1997
 +
|-
 +
| Uganda
 +
| -
 +
| 21 June 1995
 +
|-
 +
| Ukraine
 +
| 20 March 1968
 +
| 12 November 1973
 +
|-
 +
| United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
 +
| 16 September 1968
 +
| 20 May 1976
 +
|-
 +
| United Republic of Tanzania
 +
| -
 +
| 11 June 1976
 +
|-
 +
| United States of America
 +
| 5 October 1977
 +
| 8 June 1992
 +
|-
 +
| Uruguay
 +
| 21 February 1967
 +
| 1 April 1970
 +
|-
 +
| Uzbekistan
 +
| -
 +
| 28 September 1995
 +
|-
 +
| Vanuatu
 +
| 29 November 2007
 +
| 21 November 2008
 +
|-
 +
| Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
 +
| 24 June 1969
 +
| 10 May 1978
 +
|-
 +
| Viet Nam
 +
| -
 +
| 24 September 1982
 +
|-
 +
| Yemen
 +
| -
 +
| 9 February 1987
 +
|-
 +
| Zambia
 +
| -
 +
| 10 April 1984
 +
|-
 +
| Zimbabwe
 +
| -
 +
| 13 May 1991
 +
|-
 +
|}
 
----
 
----
 
See [[International Law]]
 
See [[International Law]]

Latest revision as of 16:02, 24 July 2012

Globe3.png English  • français


Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly Resolution 2200A (XXI), on December 16, 1966. Entered into force on March 23, 1976.

Relevant Provisions of the ICCPR

Article 2

1. Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to respect and to ensure to all individuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction the rights recognized in the present Covenant, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

3. Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes:

(a) To ensure that any person whose rights or freedoms as herein recognized are violated shall have an effective remedy, notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by persons acting in an official capacity;

(b) To ensure that any person claiming such a remedy shall have his right thereto determined by competent judicial, administrative or legislative authorities, or by any other competent authority provided for by the legal system of the State, and to develop the possibilities of judicial remedy;

(c) To ensure that the competent authorities shall enforce such remedies when granted.

Article 6

Right to life. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life.

Article 7

Prohibition of torture or curel, inhuman or degrading tratment or punishment.

Article 9

1. Right to liberty and security of the person. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention. No one shall be deprived of his liberty except on such grounds and in accordance with such procedure as are established by law.

2. Anyone who is arrested shall be informed, at the time of arrest, of the reasons for his arrest and shall be promptly informed of any charges against him.

3. Anyone arrested or detained on a criminal charge shall be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorized by law to exercise judicial power and shall be entitled to trial within a reasonable time or to release. It shall not be the general rule that persons awaiting trial shall be detained in custody, but release may be subject to guarantees to appear for trial, at any other stage of the judicial proceedings, and, should occasion arise, for execution of the judgement.

4. Anyone who is deprived of his liberty by arrest or detention shall be entitled to take proceedings before a court, in order that that court may decide without delay on the lawfulness of his detention and order his release if the detention is not lawful.

5. Anyone who has been the victim of unlawful arrest or detention shall have an enforceable right to compensation.

Article 10

1. All persons deprived of their liberty shall be treated with humanity and with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person.

2.

(a) Accused persons shall, save in exceptional circumstances, be segregated from convicted persons and shall be subject to separate treatment appropriate to their status as unconvicted persons;

(b) Accused juvenile persons shall be separated from adults and brought as speedily as possible for adjudication.

3. The penitentiary system shall comprise treatment of prisoners the essential aim of which shall be their reformation and social rehabilitation. Juvenile offenders shall be segregated from adults and be accorded treatment appropriate to their age and legal status.

Article 14

1. All persons shall be equal before the courts and tribunals. In the determination of any criminal charge against him, or of his rights and obligations in a suit at law, everyone shall be entitled to a fair and public hearing by a competent, independent and impartial tribunal established by law. The press and the public may be excluded from all or part of a trial for reasons of morals, public order (ordre public) or national security in a democratic society, or when the interest of the private lives of the parties so requires, or to the extent strictly necessary in the opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interests of justice; but any judgement rendered in a criminal case or in a suit at law shall be made public except where the interest of juvenile persons otherwise requires or the proceedings concern matrimonial disputes or the guardianship of children.

2. Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall have the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law.

3. In the determination of any criminal charge against him, everyone shall be entitled to the following minimum guarantees, in full equality:

(a) To be informed promptly and in detail in a language which he understands of the nature and cause of the charge against him;

(b) To have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence and to communicate with counsel of his own choosing;

(c) To be tried without undue delay;

(d) To be tried in his presence, and to defend himself in person or through legal assistance of his own choosing; to be informed, if he does not have legal assistance, of this right; and to have legal assistance assigned to him, in any case where the interests of justice so require, and without payment by him in any such case if he does not have sufficient means to pay for it;

(e) To examine, or have examined, the witnesses against him and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against him;

(f) To have the free assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand or speak the language used in court;

(g) Not to be compelled to testify against himself or to confess guilt.

4. In the case of juvenile persons, the procedure shall be such as will take account of their age and the desirability of promoting their rehabilitation.

5. Everyone convicted of a crime shall have the right to his conviction and sentence being reviewed by a higher tribunal according to law.

6. When a person has by a final decision been convicted of a criminal offence and when subsequently his conviction has been reversed or he has been pardoned on the ground that a new or newly discovered fact shows conclusively that there has been a miscarriage of justice, the person who has suffered punishment as a result of such conviction shall be compensated according to law, unless it is proved that the non-disclosure of the unknown fact in time is wholly or partly attributable to him.

7. No one shall be liable to be tried or punished again for an offence for which he has already been finally convicted or acquitted in accordance with the law and penal procedure of each country.

Article 15

1 . No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time when the criminal offence was committed. If, subsequent to the commission of the offence, provision is made by law for the imposition of the lighter penalty, the offender shall benefit thereby.

2. Nothing in this article shall prejudice the trial and punishment of any person for any act or omission which, at the time when it was committed, was criminal according to the general principles of law recognized by the community of nations.

Article 16

Right to be recognized everywhere as a person before the law.

Article 17

1. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation.

2. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

Article 18

Right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.

Article 19

Freedom of opinion.

Article 21

Right of peaceful assembly.

Article 22

Right to freedom of association with others, right to form trade unions.

Article 25

Every citizen shall have the right to take part in the conduct of public affairs. Right to equal access to public service in his country.

Article 26

All persons are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to the equal protection of the law. In this respect, the law shall prohibit any discrimination and guarantee to all persons equal and effective protection against discrimination on any ground such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

Status of Signature, Ratification, Accession to the ICCPR

Country Signature Ratification/Accession
Afghanistan - 24 January 1983
Albania - 4 October 1991
Algeria 10 December 1968 12 September 1989
Andorra 5 August 2002 22 September 2006
Angola - 10 January 1992
Argentina 19 February 1968 8 August 1986
Armenia - 23 June 1993
Australia 18 December 1972 13 August 1980
Austria 10 December 1973 10 December 1978
Azerbaijan - 13 August 1992
Bahamas 4 December 2008 23 December 2008
Bahrain - 20 September 2006
Bangladesh - 6 September 2000
Barbardos - 5 January 1973
Belarus 19 March 1968 12 November 1973
Belgium 10 December 1968 21 April 1983
Belize - 10 June 1996
Benin - 12 March 1992
Bolivia - 12 August 1982
Bosnia and Herzegovina - 1 September 1993
Botswana 8 September 2000 8 September 2000
Brazil - 24 January 1992
Bulgaria 8 October 1968 21 September 1970
Burkina Faso - 4 January 1999
Burundi - 9 May 1990
Cambodia 17 October 1980 26 May 1992
Cameroon - 27 June 1984
Canada - 19 May 1976
Cape Verde - 6 August 1993
Central African Republic - 8 May 1981
Chad - 9 June 1995
Chile 16 September 1969 10 February 1972
China 5 October 1998 -
Colombia 21 December 1966 29 October 1969
Comoros 25 September 2008 -
Congo - 5 October 1983
Costa Rica 19 December 1966 29 November 1968
Côte d'Ivoire - 26 March 1992
Croatia - 12 October 1992
Cuba 28 February 2008 -
Cyprus 19 December 1966 15 April 1992
Czech Republic - 22 February 1993
Democratic Republic of the Congo - 14 September 1981
Denmark 20 March 1968 6 January 1972
Djibouti - 5 November 2002
Dominica - 17 June 1993
Dominican Republic - 4 January 1978
Ecuador 4 April 1968 6 March 1969
Egypt 4 August 1967 14 January 1982
El Salvador 21 September 1967 30 November 1979
Equatorial Guinea - 25 September 1987
Eritrea - 22 January 2002
Estonia - 21 October 1991
Ethiopia - 11 June 1993
Finland 11 October 1967 19 August 1975
France - 4 November 1980
Gabon - 21 January 1983
Gambia - 22 March 1979
Georgia - 3 May 1994
Germany 9 October 1968 17 December 1973
Ghana 7 September 2000 7 September 2000
Greece - 5 May 1997
Grenada - 6 September 1991
Guatemala - 5 May 1992
Guinea 28 February 1967 24 January 1978
Guinea Bissau 12 September 2000 1 November 2010
Guyana 22 August 1968 15 February 1977
Haiti - 6 February 1991
Honduras 19 December 1966 25 August 1997
Hungary 25 March 1969 17 January 1974
Iceland 30 December 1968 22 August 1979
India - 10 April 1979
Indonesia - 23 February 2006
Iran 4 April 1968 24 June 1975
Iraq 18 February 1969 25 January 1971
Ireland 1 October 1973 8 December 1989
Israel 19 December 1966 3 October 1991
Italy 18 January 1967 15 September 1978
Jamaica 19 December 1966 3 October 1975
Japan 30 May 1978 21 June 1979
Jordan 30 June 1972 28 May 1975
Kazakhstan 2 December 2003 24 January 2006
Kenya - 1 May 1972
Kuwait - 21 May 1996
Kyrgyzstan - 7 October 1994
Lao People's Democratic Republic 7 December 2000 25 September 2009
Latvia - 14 April 1994
Lebanon - 3 November 1972
Lesotho - 9 September 1992
Liberia 18 April 1967 22 September 2004
Libyan Ara Jamahiriya - 15 May 1970
Liechtenstien - 10 December 1998
Lithuania - 20 November 1991
Luxembourg 26 November 1974 18 August 1983
Magadascar 17 September 1969 21 June 1971
Malawi - 22 December 1993
Maldives - 19 September 2006
Mali - 16 July 1974
Malta - 13 September 1990
Mauritania - 17 November 2004
Mauritius - 12 December 1973
Mexico - 23 March 1981
Monaco 26 June 1997 28 August 1997
Mongolia 5 June 1968 18 November 1974
Montenegro - 23 October 2006
Morocco 19 January 1977 3 May 1979
Mozambique - 21 July 1993
Namibia - 28 November 1994
Nauru 12 November 2001 -
Nepal - 14 May 1991
Netherlands 25 June 1969 11 December 1978
New Zealand 12 November 1968 28 December 1979
Nicaragua - 12 March 1980
Niger - 7 March 1986
Nigeria - 29 July 1993
Norway 20 March 1968 13 September 1972
Pakistan 17 April 2008 23 June 2010
Palau 20 September 2011 -
Panama 27 July 1976 8 March 1977
Papua New Guinea - 21 July 2008
Paraguay - 10 June 1992
Peru 11 August 1977 28 April 1978
Philippines 19 December 1966 23 October 1986
Poland 2 March 1967 18 March 1977
Portugal 7 October 1976 15 June 1978
Republic of Korea - 10 April 1990
Republic of Moldova - 26 January 1993
Romania 27 June 1968 9 December 1974
Russian Federation 18 March 1968 16 October 1973
Rwanda - 16 April 1975
Samoa - 15 February 2008
San Marino - 18 October 1985
Sao Tome and Principe 31 October 1995 -
Senegal 6 July 1970 13 February 1978
Serbia - 12 March 2001
Seychelles - 5 May 1992
Sierra Leone - 23 August 1996
Slovakia - 28 May 1993
Slovenia - 6 July 1992
Somalia - 24 January 1990
South Africa 3 October 1994 10 December 1998
Spain 28 September 1976 27 April 1977
Sri Lanka - 11 June 1980
St Lucia 22 September 2011 -
St Vincent and the Grenadines - 9 November 1981
Sudan - 18 March 1986
Suriname - 28 December 1976
Swaziland - 26 March 2004
Sweden 29 September 1967 6 December 1971
Switzerland - 18 June 1992
Syrian Arab Republic - 21 April 1969
Tajikistan - 4 January 1999
Thailand - 29 October 1996
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia - 18 January 1994
Timor Leste - 18 September 2003
Togo - 24 May 1984
Trinidad and Tobago - 21 December 1978
Tunisia 30 April 1968 18 March 1969
Turkey 15 August 2000 23 September 2003
Turkmenistan - 1 May 1997
Uganda - 21 June 1995
Ukraine 20 March 1968 12 November 1973
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 16 September 1968 20 May 1976
United Republic of Tanzania - 11 June 1976
United States of America 5 October 1977 8 June 1992
Uruguay 21 February 1967 1 April 1970
Uzbekistan - 28 September 1995
Vanuatu 29 November 2007 21 November 2008
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 24 June 1969 10 May 1978
Viet Nam - 24 September 1982
Yemen - 9 February 1987
Zambia - 10 April 1984
Zimbabwe - 13 May 1991

See International Law