Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam

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Adopted by the Organization of the Islamic Conference on August 5, 1990, by the Resolution No. 49/19-P.

Relevant Provisions of the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam

Article 1

All men are equal in terms of basic human dignity and basic obligations and responsibilities, without any discrimination on the grounds of race, color, language, sex, religious belief, political affiliation, social status or other considerations.

Article 6

Woman is equal to man in human dignity, and has rights to enjoy as well as duties to perform; she has her own civil entity and financial independence, and the right to retain her name and lineage.

Article 8

Every human being has the right to enjoy his legal capacity in terms of both obligation and commitment. When this capacity is lost or impaired, he shall be represented by his guardian.

Article 15

a) Right to own property acquired in a legitimate way. Expropriation is not permissible except for the requirements of public interest and upon payment of immediate and fair compensation.

b) Confiscation and seizure of property is prohibited except for a necessity dictated by the law.

Article 18

b) Right to privacy. The state shall protect the person against arbitrary interference.

c) A private residence is inviolable in all cases.

Article 19

a) Equality of all individuals before the law, without distinction between the ruler and the ruled.

b) Right to resort to justice.

c) Liability is in essence personal.

d) There shall be no crime or punishment except as provided for in the Shari'ah.

e) A defendant is innocent until his guilt is proven in a fair trial in which he shall be given all the guarantees of defense.

Article 20

Right to be free from arbitrary arrest, detention or exile. Prohibition of physical and psychological torture, and of any form of humiliation, cruelty or indignity.

Article 24

All the rights and freedoms stipulated in the Declaration are subject to the Islamic Shari’ah.

Article 25

The Islamic Shari’ah is the only source of reference for the explanation or clarification of any of the articles of this Declaration.

See International Law