India Criminal Defense Manual - Evidence
The laws of evidence impose standards that govern the admission of proof at trial. This proof can come in the form of testimony, documents, or physical objects. There are four main types of evidence that may be offered in a criminal case:
Demonstrative evidence illustrates the testimony of a witness and includes items such as maps, diagrams, and charts. Documentary evidence is contained in the form of writing, such as a contract. Real evidence is generally an object that was directly involved in the case, such as the murder weapon or a piece of the victim's clothing. Testimonial evidence is oral evidence provided by a witness under oath. Both the content and form of proffered evidence is considered when determining its admissibility at trial. Many volumes have been written on the rules of evidence. What follows are some general principles that frequently arise in criminal trials.
The Process of Admitting Evidence
Before evidence can be used at trial, it must be admitted. The judge determines the admissibility of evidence. To be admissible, evidence must be material, relevant, trustworthy, and must not violate an exclusionary rule. Real and documentary evidence must also be authenticated, that is, shown to be what the proponent claims it is. Authentication can be accomplished through witness testimony or, if the evidence is the type that can easily be tampered with (i.e. blood samples), authentication can be accomplished by offering evidence that establishes an unbroken chain of possession from the time the evidence was collected to the time it is offered in court. Once admitted, the finder of fact will determine the appropriate weight to give to a particular piece of evidence. Evidence is material if it relates to a substantive legal issue in the case. Evidence is relevant if it tends to prove or disprove a material issue. Exclusionary rules, discussed above, prevent the admissibility of relevant and material evidence due to concerns about the manner in which the evidence was obtained.
Additionally, a trial judge has significant discretion to exclude evidence, despite its relevance, if its probative value is outweighed by its prejudicial value, if it could be confusing or misleading, or if its admission would cause undue delay.
Tips for Evaluating Materiality and Relevancy
Inquiries into materiality and relevancy are intertwined as they both seek to determine whether the proffered evidence tends to prove or disprove a substantive issue in the case. Materiality and relevancy deal with the content of the evidence, not the manner in which it is offered. The questions to ask when evaluating materiality and relevancy are: What is the evidence being used to prove? Is this a material fact? Will the evidence tend to make the fact more or less likely to be true?
As a general guideline, relevant evidence relates to a time, event or person involved in the controversy that is the subject of the trial. Evidence that does not relate to a time, event or person involved in the current controversy, but rather to a similar time, event, or person, should be carefully evaluated. For the most part, evidence of a similar occurrence is not relevant, and even if it is relevant, the risk of unfair prejudice may make it inadmissible. For example, in a murder case, evidence that the criminal accused threatened the victim on the morning of the killing is probably relevant, however evidence that the accused threatened someone else twenty years earlier is probably not relevant, as it is not probative of a material issue in the present controversy.
Legal aid lawyer must be careful not to "open the door" for unfavorable evidence by, for example, having the accused testify that he has never threatened anyone.
Character Evidence: The Basics
Quite often, character evidence is the only evidence offered by an accused in his case. This evidence is intended to show that upstanding persons in the community know the accused and that he has a reputation as a law- abiding citizen.
- Evidence of the Criminal Accused's Character
Character evidence concerns a specific quality attributed to a person, such as truthfulness or violence. The three main methods for proving an individual's character for a particular quality or trait are:
(1) introducing evidence of the individual's specific acts;
(2) offering a witness's opinion of the individual's character; and
(3) offering a witness's testimony regarding the individual's overall reputation in the community. Evidence concerning the character of a criminal accused raises special relevancy concerns.
Generally, the prosecution cannot offer evidence of the bad character of the criminal accused in order to show that the accused is more likely to have committed the crime of which he is accused.
However, because the liberty of the criminal accused is at stake, the criminal accused may introduce evidence of his good character to demonstrate his innocence of the crime of which he is accused. An accused may do so by calling a qualified witness to testify to the accused's good reputation for the trait involved in the case, as well as to testify to the witness's personal opinion regarding that trait of the accused. Should the accused call a character witness, the prosecution may rebut such testimony by cross examining the character witness, as well as by calling a witness to testify to the accused's bad reputation or the witness's opinion of the accused's character for the particular trait involved. Character evidence may be useful in a case in which the accused is a respected member of the community.
The legal aid lawyer should explore carefully with his client whether there are incidents of improper conduct that could be used to cross-examine such witnesses.
- Evidence of the Victim's Character
The criminal accused may introduce reputation or opinion evidence of the bad character of the victim only when it is relevant to prove the accused's innocence. For example, in a murder case where the accused claims self defense, the accused may introduce evidence showing that the victim threatened him. Should the accused introduce such evidence, the prosecution may offer reputation or opinion evidence regarding the victim's good character or the accused's bad character for the same trait. As a public policy matter, the criminal accused is generally not allowed to present evidence regarding the bad character of a rape victim.