Difference between revisions of "Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam"

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(Created page with ''''1992 CONSTITUTION OF THE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM (As Amended 25 December 2001)''' == Preamble == Through the millennia of their history the Vietnamese people have work�')
 
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The people exercise State power through the National Assembly and the People's Councils, bodies representing the will and aspirations of the people and which are elected by and accountable to the people.
 
The people exercise State power through the National Assembly and the People's Councils, bodies representing the will and aspirations of the people and which are elected by and accountable to the people.
 
The National Assembly, the People's Councils and other State bodies are organised and function according to the principle of democratic centralism.
 
The National Assembly, the People's Councils and other State bodies are organised and function according to the principle of democratic centralism.
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Article 7
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'''Article 7'''
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Elections to the National Assembly and the People's Councils are conducted by universal equal and direct suffrage through secret ballot.
 
Elections to the National Assembly and the People's Councils are conducted by universal equal and direct suffrage through secret ballot.
 
Deputies to the National Assembly may be divested of their mandate by electors or by the National Assembly and deputies to the People's Councils may be divested of their mandate by electors or the People's Councils when they are no longer worthy of the people's confidence.
 
Deputies to the National Assembly may be divested of their mandate by electors or by the National Assembly and deputies to the People's Councils may be divested of their mandate by electors or the People's Councils when they are no longer worthy of the people's confidence.
Article 8
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'''Article 8'''
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All State bodies and State officials and employees shall respect the people, serve the people with utmost dedication, maintain close ties with the people, listen to the opinions of the people and accept their supervision. They shall resolutely combat against corruption, mis-spending and all manifestations of bureaucratism, arrogance, and authoritarianism.
 
All State bodies and State officials and employees shall respect the people, serve the people with utmost dedication, maintain close ties with the people, listen to the opinions of the people and accept their supervision. They shall resolutely combat against corruption, mis-spending and all manifestations of bureaucratism, arrogance, and authoritarianism.
Article 9
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'''Article 9'''
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The Vietnam Fatherland Front is the political allied organization and voluntary union of political organizations, social-political organizations, social organizations and representative individuals of social strata and classes, of ethnic groups, of religions and of Vietnamese people residing abroad.
 
The Vietnam Fatherland Front is the political allied organization and voluntary union of political organizations, social-political organizations, social organizations and representative individuals of social strata and classes, of ethnic groups, of religions and of Vietnamese people residing abroad.
 
The Vietnam Fatherland Front and its member organisations constitute the political base of the people's administration. The Front fosters the tradition of national unity, strengthens political and moral cohesion among the people, takes part in building and consolidating the people's power, and together with the government attends to and protects the legitimate rights of the people, encourages the people to exercise their rights as master scrupulously respect the Constitution and the law, and monitors the activities of the state agencies, elected deputies, state officials and employees.
 
The Vietnam Fatherland Front and its member organisations constitute the political base of the people's administration. The Front fosters the tradition of national unity, strengthens political and moral cohesion among the people, takes part in building and consolidating the people's power, and together with the government attends to and protects the legitimate rights of the people, encourages the people to exercise their rights as master scrupulously respect the Constitution and the law, and monitors the activities of the state agencies, elected deputies, state officials and employees.
 
The State creates favourable conditions for the Fatherland Front and its member organizations to work efficiently.
 
The State creates favourable conditions for the Fatherland Front and its member organizations to work efficiently.
Article 10
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'''Article 10'''
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The Vietnam Confederation of Trade Unions, as the socio-political organisation of the working class and working people, together with State bodies and economic and social organisations cares for and protects the interests of workers, public employees and other working people; takes part in the inspection and supervision of the activities of State bodies and economic organisations; educates cadres, workers, public employees and other working people in the building and defence of their homeland.
 
The Vietnam Confederation of Trade Unions, as the socio-political organisation of the working class and working people, together with State bodies and economic and social organisations cares for and protects the interests of workers, public employees and other working people; takes part in the inspection and supervision of the activities of State bodies and economic organisations; educates cadres, workers, public employees and other working people in the building and defence of their homeland.
 
Article 11
 
Article 11
 
Citizens exercise their rights as masters at the grass-roots level by taking part in state and social affairs. They have the obligation to protect public property and legitimate rights and interests of citizens, to preserve national security and social order and safety and the organisation of public life.
 
Citizens exercise their rights as masters at the grass-roots level by taking part in state and social affairs. They have the obligation to protect public property and legitimate rights and interests of citizens, to preserve national security and social order and safety and the organisation of public life.
Article 12
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'''Article 12'''
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The State administers society by rule of law and constantly strengthens the socialist legislation.
 
The State administers society by rule of law and constantly strengthens the socialist legislation.
 
All State agencies, all economic and social organisations, the people's armed forces units and all citizens shall strictly abide by the Constitution and the law and take part in crime prevention and in the fight against crime and violations of the Constitution and the law.
 
All State agencies, all economic and social organisations, the people's armed forces units and all citizens shall strictly abide by the Constitution and the law and take part in crime prevention and in the fight against crime and violations of the Constitution and the law.
 
All infringements on the interests of the State and on the lawful rights and interest of collectives and citizens shall be sanctioned according to law.
 
All infringements on the interests of the State and on the lawful rights and interest of collectives and citizens shall be sanctioned according to law.
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Article 13
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'''Article 13'''
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Our Vietnamese homeland is sacred and inviolable. All schemes and actions prejudicial to the independence, sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity of the homeland or the cause of building and defending the socialist homeland shall be severely punished according to law.
 
Our Vietnamese homeland is sacred and inviolable. All schemes and actions prejudicial to the independence, sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity of the homeland or the cause of building and defending the socialist homeland shall be severely punished according to law.
Article 14
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'''Article 14'''
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The Socialist Republic of Vietnam pursues a policy of peace, friendship and expanded international relations and cooperation with all countries in the world, irrespective of their political and social systems, on the basis of respect for each other's independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, non-interference in each other's internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit; enhances the friendly solidarity and traditional cooperation with socialist and neighbouring countries; actively supports and contributes to the common struggle of the peoples of the world for peace, national independence, democracy and social progress.
 
The Socialist Republic of Vietnam pursues a policy of peace, friendship and expanded international relations and cooperation with all countries in the world, irrespective of their political and social systems, on the basis of respect for each other's independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, non-interference in each other's internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit; enhances the friendly solidarity and traditional cooperation with socialist and neighbouring countries; actively supports and contributes to the common struggle of the peoples of the world for peace, national independence, democracy and social progress.
CHAPTER II
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THE ECONOMIC SYSTEM
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== CHAPTER II ==
Article 15
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===THE ECONOMIC SYSTEM===
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'''Article 15'''
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The State builds an independent and self-reliant economy through promoting internal strength, actively integrating into the world's economy and conducting industrialisation and modernisation of the country.
 
The State builds an independent and self-reliant economy through promoting internal strength, actively integrating into the world's economy and conducting industrialisation and modernisation of the country.
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The State adopts consistent policies on development of a socialist-oriented market economy. The multi- sectoral structure of the economy with diversified types of production and business organisation is based on ownership of the entire people along with collective and private ownership, of which the first two and the second are the cornerstone.
 
The State adopts consistent policies on development of a socialist-oriented market economy. The multi- sectoral structure of the economy with diversified types of production and business organisation is based on ownership of the entire people along with collective and private ownership, of which the first two and the second are the cornerstone.
Article 16
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'''Article 16'''
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The economic policies of the State are to build a strong country with prosperous life for its people, and aimed at ever better satisfying the material and spiritual needs of the people by bringing into full play all productive capacities, and all the potentials of the various economic sectors comprising the State, collective, individual, small-holder, private capitalist, State capitalist and the economy with foreign owned capital under different forms; stepping up the construction of the material and technical basis, expanding economic, scientific and technical cooperation and exchanges with the international market.
 
The economic policies of the State are to build a strong country with prosperous life for its people, and aimed at ever better satisfying the material and spiritual needs of the people by bringing into full play all productive capacities, and all the potentials of the various economic sectors comprising the State, collective, individual, small-holder, private capitalist, State capitalist and the economy with foreign owned capital under different forms; stepping up the construction of the material and technical basis, expanding economic, scientific and technical cooperation and exchanges with the international market.
 
The economic sectors constitute important components of the socialist-oriented market economy. Individuals and organizations from different economic sectors may conduct production and business in industries and trades permitted by law; may jointly carry out long-term development and co-operation, and shall be equal and shall compete in accordance with the law.
 
The economic sectors constitute important components of the socialist-oriented market economy. Individuals and organizations from different economic sectors may conduct production and business in industries and trades permitted by law; may jointly carry out long-term development and co-operation, and shall be equal and shall compete in accordance with the law.
 
The State fosters the establishment, development and step-by-step completion of all kinds of socialist- oriented markets.
 
The State fosters the establishment, development and step-by-step completion of all kinds of socialist- oriented markets.
Article 17
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'''Article 17'''
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The land, forests, rivers and lakes, water sources, underground natural resources, resources in the territorial waters, on the continental shelf and in the air space, capital funds and properties invested by the State in enterprises and projects in the various branches and fields of the economy, culture, social life, science and technology, foreign affairs and national security and defence and other property defined by law as belonging to the State fall under the ownership of the entire people.
 
The land, forests, rivers and lakes, water sources, underground natural resources, resources in the territorial waters, on the continental shelf and in the air space, capital funds and properties invested by the State in enterprises and projects in the various branches and fields of the economy, culture, social life, science and technology, foreign affairs and national security and defence and other property defined by law as belonging to the State fall under the ownership of the entire people.
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Article 18
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'''Article 18'''
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The State assumes the unified administration of land according to overall planning and in conformity with the law and ensures its appropriate and effective use.
 
The State assumes the unified administration of land according to overall planning and in conformity with the law and ensures its appropriate and effective use.
 
Land is allocated by the State to organisations and individuals for stable long-term use.
 
Land is allocated by the State to organisations and individuals for stable long-term use.
 
Organisations and individuals who use the land are duty-bound to ensure its protection, replenishment, rational exploitation and economical utilisation. They are also entitled by law to transfer the right to use the land allocated by the State.
 
Organisations and individuals who use the land are duty-bound to ensure its protection, replenishment, rational exploitation and economical utilisation. They are also entitled by law to transfer the right to use the land allocated by the State.
Article 19
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'''Article 19'''
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The State sector is to be strengthened and developed especially in the key branches and fields which assume a leading role and, together with the collective economic sector, form the stable foundation of the national economy.
 
The State sector is to be strengthened and developed especially in the key branches and fields which assume a leading role and, together with the collective economic sector, form the stable foundation of the national economy.
Article 20
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'''Article 20'''
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Economic collectives set up through the contribution of funds and manpower by citizens for cooperation in production and business will be organised under different forms on the basic of voluntariness, democracy and mutual benefit.
 
Economic collectives set up through the contribution of funds and manpower by citizens for cooperation in production and business will be organised under different forms on the basic of voluntariness, democracy and mutual benefit.
 
The State shall facilitate the consolidation and expansion of efficient economic collectives.
 
The State shall facilitate the consolidation and expansion of efficient economic collectives.
Article 21
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'''Article 21'''
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Individual economic entities, small-holders and the private capitalist economic sector are allowed to choose their forms of production and business, have the right to set up business without any limitations as to their scale of activities in branches and trades which are beneficial to the well-being of the nation and its people.
 
Individual economic entities, small-holders and the private capitalist economic sector are allowed to choose their forms of production and business, have the right to set up business without any limitations as to their scale of activities in branches and trades which are beneficial to the well-being of the nation and its people.
 
The development of household economy is encouraged.
 
The development of household economy is encouraged.
Article 22
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'''Article 22'''
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Production and business establishments is the various economic sectors have to fulfil all obligations before the State, and are equal before the law; their legal capital and property shall be protected by the State.
 
Production and business establishments is the various economic sectors have to fulfil all obligations before the State, and are equal before the law; their legal capital and property shall be protected by the State.
 
Enterprises in the various economic sectors may enter joint ventures with individuals or economic organisations inside or outside the country as provided for by the law.
 
Enterprises in the various economic sectors may enter joint ventures with individuals or economic organisations inside or outside the country as provided for by the law.
Article 23
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'''Article 23'''
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The legal property of individual or organisations shall not be nationalised.
 
The legal property of individual or organisations shall not be nationalised.
 
The State may, when necessary for reasons of security and national defence and for the national interest, purchase or requisition with compensation at current market prices the property of individuals or of organisations.
 
The State may, when necessary for reasons of security and national defence and for the national interest, purchase or requisition with compensation at current market prices the property of individuals or of organisations.
 
The procedures for purchase or requisition are defined by the law.
 
The procedures for purchase or requisition are defined by the law.
Article 24
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The State expands external economic activities and assumes their unified administration, expands different forms of economic relations with all countries and international organisations on the principle of
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'''Article 24'''
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respect for independence, sovereignty and mutual benefit, and of appropriate protection for domestic production.
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The State expands external economic activities and assumes their unified administration, expands different forms of economic relations with all countries and international organisations on the principle of respect for independence, sovereignty and mutual benefit, and of appropriate protection for domestic production.
Article 25
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'''Article 25'''
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The State encourages foreign organisations and individuals to invest capital and technology in Vietnam in accordance with Vietnamese law and with international law and practice; ensures the legal ownership of capital and assets as well as other interests of foreign organisations and individuals. Enterprises with foreign invested capital shall not be nationalised.
 
The State encourages foreign organisations and individuals to invest capital and technology in Vietnam in accordance with Vietnamese law and with international law and practice; ensures the legal ownership of capital and assets as well as other interests of foreign organisations and individuals. Enterprises with foreign invested capital shall not be nationalised.
 
The State encourages and creates favourable conditions for the Vietnamese who live abroad to invest in the homeland.
 
The State encourages and creates favourable conditions for the Vietnamese who live abroad to invest in the homeland.
Article 26
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'''Article 26'''
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The State assumes the unified administration of the national economy through legislation, plans, policies, assigns responsibilities and devolves State administrative authority among the various levels, combines the interests of individuals, collectives and the State.
 
The State assumes the unified administration of the national economy through legislation, plans, policies, assigns responsibilities and devolves State administrative authority among the various levels, combines the interests of individuals, collectives and the State.
Article 27
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'''Article 27'''
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All economic and social activities and State administration as a whole have to observe economy.
 
All economic and social activities and State administration as a whole have to observe economy.
Article 28
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'''Article 28'''
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All illegal production or business activities, all acts that undermine the national economy, harm the legitimate interests of the State, collectives and citizens shall be strictly punished in accordance with the law.
 
All illegal production or business activities, all acts that undermine the national economy, harm the legitimate interests of the State, collectives and citizens shall be strictly punished in accordance with the law.
 
The State adopts policies aimed at protecting the interests of producers and consumers.
 
The State adopts policies aimed at protecting the interests of producers and consumers.
Article 29
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'''Article 29'''
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All State offices, armed forces units, economic establishments, social organisations and every citizen have to observe State regulations on the appropriate utilisation of natural resources and on environmental protection.
 
All State offices, armed forces units, economic establishments, social organisations and every citizen have to observe State regulations on the appropriate utilisation of natural resources and on environmental protection.
All acts resulting in depletion and destruction of the environment are strictly prohibited. CHAPTER III
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All acts resulting in depletion and destruction of the environment are strictly prohibited.  
CULTURE, EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
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Article 30
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== CHAPTER III ==
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===CULTURE, EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY===
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'''Article 30'''
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The State and society preserve and develop a progressive Vietnamese culture imbued with national identity; and inherit and enhance the values of the multi-ethnic Vietnamese civilisation, Ho Chi Minh's thought, ethics and style; assimilate the quintessence of human culture; and foster all the creative talents of the people.
 
The State and society preserve and develop a progressive Vietnamese culture imbued with national identity; and inherit and enhance the values of the multi-ethnic Vietnamese civilisation, Ho Chi Minh's thought, ethics and style; assimilate the quintessence of human culture; and foster all the creative talents of the people.
 
The State assumes the unified administration of cultural development. Reactionary and depraved ideologies and culture are to be banned; superstition is to be driven out.
 
The State assumes the unified administration of cultural development. Reactionary and depraved ideologies and culture are to be banned; superstition is to be driven out.

Revision as of 13:54, 2 July 2010