International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

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Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly Resolution 2200A (XXI), on December 16, 1966. Entered into force on March 23, 1976.

Relevant Provisions of the ICCPR

Article 2

1. Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to respect and to ensure to all individuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction the rights recognized in the present Covenant, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

3. Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes:

(a) To ensure that any person whose rights or freedoms as herein recognized are violated shall have an effective remedy, notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by persons acting in an official capacity;

(b) To ensure that any person claiming such a remedy shall have his right thereto determined by competent judicial, administrative or legislative authorities, or by any other competent authority provided for by the legal system of the State, and to develop the possibilities of judicial remedy;

(c) To ensure that the competent authorities shall enforce such remedies when granted.

Article 6

Right to life. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life.

Article 7

Prohibition of torture or curel, inhuman or degrading tratment or punishment.

Article 9

1. Right to liberty and security of the person. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention. No one shall be deprived of his liberty except on such grounds and in accordance with such procedure as are established by law.

2. Anyone who is arrested shall be informed, at the time of arrest, of the reasons for his arrest and shall be promptly informed of any charges against him.

3. Anyone arrested or detained on a criminal charge shall be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorized by law to exercise judicial power and shall be entitled to trial within a reasonable time or to release. It shall not be the general rule that persons awaiting trial shall be detained in custody, but release may be subject to guarantees to appear for trial, at any other stage of the judicial proceedings, and, should occasion arise, for execution of the judgement.

4. Anyone who is deprived of his liberty by arrest or detention shall be entitled to take proceedings before a court, in order that that court may decide without delay on the lawfulness of his detention and order his release if the detention is not lawful.

5. Anyone who has been the victim of unlawful arrest or detention shall have an enforceable right to compensation.

Article 10

1. All persons deprived of their liberty shall be treated with humanity and with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person.

2.

(a) Accused persons shall, save in exceptional circumstances, be segregated from convicted persons and shall be subject to separate treatment appropriate to their status as unconvicted persons;

(b) Accused juvenile persons shall be separated from adults and brought as speedily as possible for adjudication.

3. The penitentiary system shall comprise treatment of prisoners the essential aim of which shall be their reformation and social rehabilitation. Juvenile offenders shall be segregated from adults and be accorded treatment appropriate to their age and legal status.

Article 14

1. All persons shall be equal before the courts and tribunals. In the determination of any criminal charge against him, or of his rights and obligations in a suit at law, everyone shall be entitled to a fair and public hearing by a competent, independent and impartial tribunal established by law. The press and the public may be excluded from all or part of a trial for reasons of morals, public order (ordre public) or national security in a democratic society, or when the interest of the private lives of the parties so requires, or to the extent strictly necessary in the opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interests of justice; but any judgement rendered in a criminal case or in a suit at law shall be made public except where the interest of juvenile persons otherwise requires or the proceedings concern matrimonial disputes or the guardianship of children.

2. Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall have the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law.

3. In the determination of any criminal charge against him, everyone shall be entitled to the following minimum guarantees, in full equality:

(a) To be informed promptly and in detail in a language which he understands of the nature and cause of the charge against him;

(b) To have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence and to communicate with counsel of his own choosing;

(c) To be tried without undue delay;

(d) To be tried in his presence, and to defend himself in person or through legal assistance of his own choosing; to be informed, if he does not have legal assistance, of this right; and to have legal assistance assigned to him, in any case where the interests of justice so require, and without payment by him in any such case if he does not have sufficient means to pay for it;

(e) To examine, or have examined, the witnesses against him and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against him;

(f) To have the free assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand or speak the language used in court;

(g) Not to be compelled to testify against himself or to confess guilt.

4. In the case of juvenile persons, the procedure shall be such as will take account of their age and the desirability of promoting their rehabilitation.

5. Everyone convicted of a crime shall have the right to his conviction and sentence being reviewed by a higher tribunal according to law.

6. When a person has by a final decision been convicted of a criminal offence and when subsequently his conviction has been reversed or he has been pardoned on the ground that a new or newly discovered fact shows conclusively that there has been a miscarriage of justice, the person who has suffered punishment as a result of such conviction shall be compensated according to law, unless it is proved that the non-disclosure of the unknown fact in time is wholly or partly attributable to him.

7. No one shall be liable to be tried or punished again for an offence for which he has already been finally convicted or acquitted in accordance with the law and penal procedure of each country.

Article 15

1 . No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time when the criminal offence was committed. If, subsequent to the commission of the offence, provision is made by law for the imposition of the lighter penalty, the offender shall benefit thereby.

2. Nothing in this article shall prejudice the trial and punishment of any person for any act or omission which, at the time when it was committed, was criminal according to the general principles of law recognized by the community of nations.

Article 16

Right to be recognized everywhere as a person before the law.

Article 17

1. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation.

2. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

Article 18

Right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.

Article 19

Freedom of opinion.

Article 21

Right of peaceful assembly.

Article 22

Right to freedom of association with others, right to form trade unions.

Article 25

Every citizen shall have the right to take part in the conduct of public affairs. Right to equal access to public service in his country.

Article 26

All persons are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to the equal protection of the law. In this respect, the law shall prohibit any discrimination and guarantee to all persons equal and effective protection against discrimination on any ground such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

Status of Signature, Ratification, Accession to the ICCPR

Country Signature Ratification/Accession
Afghanistan - 24 January 1983
Albania - 4 October 1991
Algeria 10 December 1968 12 September 1989
Andorra 5 August 2002 22 September 2006
Angola - 10 January 1992
Argentina 19 February 1968 8 August 1986
Armenia - 23 June 1993
Australia 18 December 1972 13 August 1980
Austria 10 December 1973 10 December 1978
Azerbaijan - 13 August 1992
Bahamas 4 December 2008 23 December 2008
Bahrain - 20 September 2006
Bangladesh - 6 September 2000
Barbardos - 5 January 1973
Belarus 19 March 1968 12 November 1973
Belgium 10 December 1968 21 April 1983
Belize - 10 June 1996
Benin - 12 March 1992
Bolivia - 12 August 1982
Bosnia and Herzegovina - 1 September 1993
Botswana 8 September 2000 8 September 2000
Brazil - 24 January 1992
Bulgaria 8 October 1968 21 September 1970
Burkina Faso - 4 January 1999
Burundi - 9 May 1990
Cambodia 17 October 1980 26 May 1992
Cameroon - 27 June 1984
Canada - 19 May 1976
Cape Verde - 6 August 1993
Central African Republic - 8 May 1981
Chad - 9 June 1995
Chile 16 September 1969 10 February 1972
China 5 October 1998 -
Colombia 21 December 1966 29 October 1969
Comoros 25 September 2008 -
Congo - 5 October 1983
Costa Rica 19 December 1966 29 November 1968
Côte d'Ivoire - 26 March 1992
Croatia - 12 October 1992
Cuba 28 February 2008 -
Cyprus 19 December 1966 15 April 1992
Czech Republic - 22 February 1993
Democratic Republic of the Congo - 14 September 1981
Denmark 20 March 1968 6 January 1972
Djibouti - 5 November 2002
Dominica - 17 June 1993
Dominican Republic - 4 January 1978
Ecuador 4 April 1968 6 March 1969
Egypt 4 August 1967 14 January 1982
El Salvador 21 September 1967 30 November 1979
Equatorial Guinea - 25 September 1987
Eritrea - 22 January 2002
Estonia - 21 October 1991
Ethiopia - 11 June 1993
Finland 11 October 1967 19 August 1975
France - 4 November 1980
Gabon - 21 January 1983
Gambia - 22 March 1979
Georgia - 3 May 1994
Germany 9 October 1968 17 December 1973
Ghana 7 September 2000 7 September 2000
Greece - 5 May 1997
Grenada - 6 September 1991
Guatemala - 5 May 1992
Guinea 28 February 1967 24 January 1978
Guinea Bissau 12 September 2000 1 November 2010
Guyana 22 August 1968 15 February 1977
Haiti - 6 February 1991
Honduras 19 December 1966 25 August 1997
Hungary 25 March 1969 17 January 1974
Iceland 30 December 1968 22 August 1979
India - 10 April 1979
Indonesia - 23 February 2006
Iran 4 April 1968 24 June 1975
Iraq 18 February 1969 25 January 1971
Ireland 1 October 1973 8 December 1989
Israel 19 December 1966 3 October 1991
Italy 18 January 1967 15 September 1978
Jamaica 19 December 1966 3 October 1975
Japan 30 May 1978 21 June 1979
Jordan 30 June 1972 28 May 1975
Kazakhstan 2 December 2003 24 January 2006
Kenya - 1 May 1972
Kuwait - 21 May 1996
Kyrgyzstan - 7 October 1994
Lao People's Democratic Republic 7 December 2000 25 September 2009
Latvia - 14 April 1994
Lebanon - 3 November 1972
Lesotho - 9 September 1992
Liberia 18 April 1967 22 September 2004
Libyan Ara Jamahiriya - 15 May 1970
Liechtenstien - 10 December 1998
Lithuania - 20 November 1991
Luxembourg 26 November 1974 18 August 1983
Magadascar 17 September 1969 21 June 1971
Malawi - 22 December 1993
Maldives - 19 September 2006
Mali - 16 July 1974
Malta - 13 September 1990
Mauritania - 17 November 2004
Mauritius - 12 December 1973
Mexico - 23 March 1981
Monaco 26 June 1997 28 August 1997
Mongolia 5 June 1968 18 November 1974
Montenegro - 23 October 2006
Morocco 19 January 1977 3 May 1979
Mozambique - 21 July 1993
Namibia - 28 November 1994
Nauru 12 November 2001 -
Nepal - 14 May 1991
Netherlands 25 June 1969 11 December 1978
New Zealand 12 November 1968 28 December 1979
Nicaragua - 12 March 1980
Niger - 7 March 1986
Nigeria - 29 July 1993
Norway 20 March 1968 13 September 1972
Pakistan 17 April 2008 23 June 2010
Palau 20 September 2011 -
Panama 27 July 1976 8 March 1977
Papua New Guinea - 21 July 2008
Paraguay - 10 June 1992
Peru 11 August 1977 28 April 1978
Philippines 19 December 1966 23 October 1986
Poland 2 March 1967 18 March 1977
Portugal 7 October 1976 15 June 1978
Republic of Korea - 10 April 1990
Republic of Moldova - 26 January 1993
Romania 27 June 1968 9 December 1974
Russian Federation 18 March 1968 16 October 1973
Rwanda - 16 April 1975
Samoa - 15 February 2008
San Marino - 18 October 1985
Sao Tome and Principe 31 October 1995 -
Senegal 6 July 1970 13 February 1978
Serbia - 12 March 2001
Seychelles - 5 May 1992
Sierra Leone - 23 August 1996
Slovakia - 28 May 1993
Slovenia - 6 July 1992
Somalia - 24 January 1990
South Africa 3 October 1994 10 December 1998
Spain 28 September 1976 27 April 1977
Sri Lanka - 11 June 1980
St Lucia 22 September 2011 -
St Vincent and the Grenadines - 9 November 1981
Sudan - 18 March 1986
Suriname - 28 December 1976
Swaziland - 26 March 2004
Sweden 29 September 1967 6 December 1971
Switzerland - 18 June 1992
Syrian Arab Republic - 21 April 1969
Tajikistan - 4 January 1999
Thailand - 29 October 1996
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia - 18 January 1994
Timor Leste - 18 September 2003
Togo - 24 May 1984
Trinidad and Tobago - 21 December 1978
Tunisia 30 April 1968 18 March 1969
Turkey 15 August 2000 23 September 2003
Turkmenistan - 1 May 1997
Uganda - 21 June 1995
Ukraine 20 March 1968 12 November 1973
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 16 September 1968 20 May 1976
United Republic of Tanzania - 11 June 1976
United States of America 5 October 1977 8 June 1992
Uruguay 21 February 1967 1 April 1970
Uzbekistan - 28 September 1995
Vanuatu 29 November 2007 21 November 2008
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 24 June 1969 10 May 1978
Viet Nam - 24 September 1982
Yemen - 9 February 1987
Zambia - 10 April 1984
Zimbabwe - 13 May 1991

See International Law