Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish the Crime of Torture
Adopted by the Organization of American States on December 9, 1985. Entered into force on February 28, 1997.
Relevant Provisions of the Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish the Crime of Torture
The State Parties undertake to prevent and punish torture in accordance with the terms of this Convention.
Article 2: Definition of Torture
For the purposes of this Convention, torture shall be understood to be any act intentionally performed whereby physical or mental pain or suffering is inflicted on a person for purposes of criminal investigation, as a means of intimidation, as personal punishment, as a preventive measure, as a penalty, or for any other purpose. Torture shall also be understood to be the use of methods upon a person intended to obliterate the personality of the victim or to diminish his physical or mental capacities, even if they do not cause physical pain or mental anguish.
The concept of torture shall not include physical or mental pain or suffering that is inherent in or solely the consequence of lawful measures, provided that they do not include the performance of the acts or use of the methods referred to in this article.
The following shall be held guilty of the crime of torture:
A public servant or employee who acting in that capacity orders, instigates or induces the use of torture, or who directly commits it or who, being able to prevent it, fails to do so.
A person who at the instigation of a public servant or employee mentioned in subparagraph (a) orders, instigates or induces the use of torture, directly commits it or is an accomplice thereto.
The fact of having acted under orders of a superior shall not provide exemption from the corresponding criminal liability.
The existence of circumstances such as a state of war, threat of war, state of siege or of emergency, domestic disturbance or strife, suspension of constitutional guarantees, domestic political instability, or other public emergencies or disasters shall not be invoked or admitted as justification for the crime of torture.
Neither the dangerous character of the detainee or prisoner, nor the lack of security of the prison establishment or penitentiary shall justify torture.
In accordance with the terms of Article 1, the States Parties shall take effective measures to prevent and punish torture within their jurisdiction.
The States Parties shall ensure that all acts of torture and attempts to commit torture are offenses under their criminal law and shall make such acts punishable by severe penalties that take into account their serious nature.
The States Parties likewise shall take effective measures to prevent and punish other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment within their jurisdiction.
The States Parties shall take measures so that, in the training of police officers and other public officials responsible for the custody of persons temporarily or definitively deprived of their freedom, special emphasis shall be put on the prohibition of the use of torture in interrogation, detention, or arrest.
The States Parties likewise shall take similar measures to prevent other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment.
The States Parties shall guarantee that any person making an accusation of having been subjected to torture within their jurisdiction shall have the right to an impartial examination of his case.
Likewise, if there is an accusation or well-grounded reason to believe that an act of torture has been committed within their jurisdiction, the States Parties shall guarantee that their respective authorities will proceed properly and immediately to conduct an investigation into the case and to initiate, whenever appropriate, the corresponding criminal process.
After all the domestic legal procedures of the respective State and the corresponding appeals have been exhausted, the case may be submitted to the international fora whose competence has been recognized by that State.
The States Parties undertake to incorporate into their national laws regulations guaranteeing suitable compensation for victims of torture.
None of the provisions of this article shall affect the right to receive compensation that the victim or other persons may have by virtue of existing national legislation.
No statement that is verified as having been obtained through torture shall be admissible as evidence in a legal proceeding, except in a legal action taken against a person or persons accused of having elicited it through acts of torture, and only as evidence that the accused obtained such statement by such means.
Every State Party shall take the necessary measures to establish its jurisdiction over the crime described in this Convention in the following cases:
When torture has been committed within its jurisdiction;
When the alleged criminal is a national of that State; or
When the victim is a national of that State and it so deems appropriate.
Every State Party shall also take the necessary measures to establish its jurisdiction over the crime described in this Convention when the alleged criminal is within the area under its jurisdiction and it is not appropriate to extradite him in accordance with Article 11.
This Convention does not exclude criminal jurisdiction exercised in accordance with domestic law.
The crime referred to in Article 2 shall be deemed to be included among the extraditable crimes in every extradition treaty entered into between States Parties. The States Parties undertake to include the crime of torture as an extraditable offence in every extradition treaty to be concluded between them.
Status of Signature, Ratification or Accession to the Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish the Crime of Torture
|Antigua y Barbuda||-||-|
|Argentina||10 February 1986||18 November 1988|
|Bolivia||09 December 1985||26 August 2006|
|Brazil||24 January 1986||09 June 1989|
|Chile||24 September 1987||15 September 1988|
|Colombia||09 December 1985||02 December 1998|
|Costa Rica||31 July 1986||25 November 1999|
|Dominican Republic||31 March 1986||12 December 1986|
|Ecuador||30 May 1986||30 September 1999|
|El Salvador||16 October 1987||17 October 1994|
|Guatemala||27 October 1986||10 December 1986|
|Haiti||13 June 1986||-|
|Honduras||11 March 1986||-|
|Mexico||10 February 1986||11 February 1987|
|Nicaragua||29 September 1987||23 September 2009|
|Panama||10 February 1986||27 June 1991|
|Paraguay||25 October 1989||12 February 1990|
|Peru||10 January 1986||27 February 1990|
|St. Kitts & Nevis||-||-|
|St. Vincent & Grenadines||-||-|
|Suriname||12 November 1987||12 November 1987|
|Trinidad and Tobago||-||-|
|Uruguay||09 December 1985||23 September 1992|
|Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)||09 December 1985||25 June 1991|