Difference between revisions of "United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child"

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(Status of Signatures, Ratifications, and Accessions to the Convention on the Rights of the Child)
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|-
 
|-
 
| Afghanistan
 
| Afghanistan
| 4 February 1985
+
| 27 September 1990
| 1 April 1987
+
| 28 March 1994
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Albania
 
| Albania
| -
+
| 26 January 1990
| 11 May 1994
+
| 27 February 1992
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Algeria
 
| Algeria
| 26 November 1985
+
| 26 January 1990
| 12 September 1989
+
| 16 April 1993
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Andorra
 
| Andorra
| 5 August 2002
+
| 2 October 1995
| 22 September 2006
+
| 2 January 1996
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Antigua and Barbuda
 
| Antigua and Barbuda
| -
+
| 12 March 1991
| 19 July 1993
+
| 5 October 1993
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Argentina
 
| Argentina
| 4 February 1985
+
| 29 June 1990
| 24 September 1986
+
| 4 December 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Armenia
 
| Armenia
 
| -
 
| -
| 13 September 1993
+
| 23 June 1993
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Australia
 
| Australia
| 10 December 1985
+
| 22 August 1990
| 8 August 1989
+
| 17 December 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Austria
 
| Austria
| 14 March 1985
+
| 26 August 1990
| 29 July 1987
+
| 6 August 1992
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Azerbaijan
 
| Azerbaijan
 
| -
 
| -
| 16 August 1996
+
| 13 August 1992
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Bahamas
 
| Bahamas
| 16 December 2008
+
| 30 October 1990
| -
+
| 20 February 1991
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Bahrain
 
| Bahrain
 
| -
 
| -
| 6 March 1998
+
| 13 February 1992
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Bangladesh
 
| Bangladesh
| -
+
| 26 January 1990
| 5 October 1998
+
| 3 August 1990
 +
|-
 +
| Barbardos
 +
| 19 April 1990
 +
| 9 October 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Belarus
 
| Belarus
| 19 December 1985
+
| 26 January 1990
| 13 March 1987
+
| 1 October 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Belgium
 
| Belgium
| 4 February 1985
+
| 26 January 1990
| 25 June 1999
+
| 16 December 1991
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Belize
 
| Belize
| -
+
| 2 March 1990
| 17 March 1986
+
| 2 May 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Benin
 
| Benin
| -
+
| 25 April 1990
|12 March 1992
+
| 3 August 1990
 +
|-
 +
| Bhutan
 +
| 4 June 1990
 +
| 1 August 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Bolivia
 
| Bolivia
| 4 February 1985
+
| 8 March 1990
| 12 April 1999
+
| 26 June 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Bosnia and Herzegovina
 
|Bosnia and Herzegovina
Line 155: Line 163:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Botswana
 
| Botswana
| 8 September 2000
+
| -
| 8 September 2000
+
| 14 March 1995
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Brazil
 
| Brazil
| 23 September 1985
+
| 26 January 1990
| 28 September 1989
+
| 24 September 1990
 +
|-
 +
| Brunei Darussalam
 +
| -
 +
| 27 December 1995
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Bulgaria
 
| Bulgaria
| 10 June 1986
+
| 31 May 1990
| 16 December 1986
+
| 3 June 1991
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Burkina Faso
 
| Burkina Faso
| -
+
| 26 January 1990
| 4 January 1999
+
| 31 August 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Burundi
 
| Burundi
| -
+
| 8 May 1990
| 18 February 1993
+
| 19 October 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Cambodia
 
| Cambodia
Line 179: Line 191:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Cameroon
 
| Cameroon
| -
+
| 25 September 1990
| 19 December 1986
+
| 11 January 1993
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Canada
 
| Canada
| 23 August 1985
+
| 28 May 1990
| 24 June 1987
+
| 31 December 1991
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Cape Verde
 
| Cape Verde
 
| -  
 
| -  
 
| 4 June 1992
 
| 4 June 1992
 +
|-
 +
| Central African Republic
 +
| 30 July 1990
 +
| 23 April 1992
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Chad
 
| Chad
| -
+
| 30 September 1990
| 9 June 1995
+
| 2 October 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Chile
 
| Chile
| 23 September 1987
+
| 26 January 1990
| 30 September 1988
+
| 13 August 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| China
 
| China
| 12 December 1986
+
| 29 August 1990
| 4 October 1988
+
| 2 March 1992
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Colombia
 
| Colombia
| 10 April 1985
+
| 26 January 1990
| 8 December 1987
+
| 28 January 1991
 
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Comoros
 
| Comoros
| 22 September 2000
+
| 30 September 1990
 +
| 22 June 1993
 +
|-
 +
| Congo
 
| -
 
| -
 +
| 14 October 1993
 
|-
 
|-
| Congo
+
| Cook Islands
 
| -
 
| -
| 30 July 2003
+
| 6 June 1997
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Costa Rica
 
| Costa Rica
| 4 February 1985
+
| 26 January 1990
| 11 November 1993
+
| 21 August 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Ivory Coast
 
| Ivory Coast
| -
+
| 26 January 1990
| 18 December 1995
+
| 4 February 1991
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Croatia
 
| Croatia
Line 228: Line 247:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Cuba
 
| Cuba
| 27 January 1986
+
| 26 January 1990
| 17 May 1995
+
| 21 August 1991
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Cyprus
 
| Cyprus
| 9 October 1985
+
| 5 October 1990
| 18 July 1991
+
| 7 February 1991
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Czech Republic
 
| Czech Republic
 
| -
 
| -
 
| 22 February 1993
 
| 22 February 1993
 +
|-
 +
| Democratic Peaople's Republic of Korea
 +
| 23 August 1990
 +
| 21 September 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Democratic Republic of the Congo
 
| Democratic Republic of the Congo
| -
+
| 20 March 1990
| 18 March 1996
+
| 27 September 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Denmark
 
| Denmark
| 4 February 1985
+
| 26 January 1990
| 27 May 1987
+
| 19 July 1991
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Djibouti
 
| Djibouti
| -
+
| 30 September 1990
| 5 November 2002
+
| 6 December 1990
 +
|-
 +
| Dominica
 +
| 26 January 1990
 +
| 13 March 1991
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Dominican Republic
 
| Dominican Republic
| 4 February 1985
+
| 8 August 1990
| -
+
| 11 June 1991
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Ecuador
 
| Ecuador
| 4 February 1985
+
| 26 January 1990
| 30 March 1988
+
| 23 March 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Egypt
 
| Egypt
| -
+
| 5 February 1990
| 25 June 1986
+
| 5 July 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| El Salvador
 
| El Salvador
| -
+
| 26 January 1990
| 17 June 1996
+
| 10 July 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Equatorial Guinea
 
| Equatorial Guinea
 
| -
 
| -
| 8 October 2002
+
| 15 June 1992
 +
|-
 +
| Eritrea
 +
| 20 December 1993
 +
| 3 August 1994
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Estonia
 
| Estonia
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| Ethiopia
 
| Ethiopia
 
| -
 
| -
| 14 March 1994
+
| 14 March 1991
 +
|-
 +
| Fiji
 +
| 2 July 1993
 +
| 13 August 1993
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Finland
 
| Finland
| 4 February 1985
+
| 26 January 1990
| 30 August 1989
+
| 20 June 1991
 
|-
 
|-
 
| France
 
| France
| 4 February 1985
+
| 26 January 1990
| 18 February 1986
+
| 7 August 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Gabon
 
| Gabon
| 21 January 1986
+
| 26 January 1990
| 8 September 2000
+
| 9 February 1994
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Gambia
 
| Gambia
| 23 October 1985
+
| 5 February 1990
| -
+
| 8 August 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Georgia
 
| Georgia
 
| -  
 
| -  
| 26 October 1994
+
| 2 June 1994
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Germany
 
| Germany
| 13 October 1986
+
| 26 January 1990
| 1 October 1990
+
| 6 March 1992
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Ghana
 
| Ghana
| 7 September 2000
+
| 29 January 1990
| 7 September 2000
+
| 5 February 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Greece
 
| Greece
| 4 February 1985
+
| 26 January 1990
| 6 October 1988
+
| 11 May 1993
 +
|-
 +
| Grenade
 +
| 21 February 1990
 +
| 5 November 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Guatemala
 
| Guatemala
| -
+
| 26 January 1990
| 5 January 1990
+
| 6 June 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Guinea
 
| Guinea
| 30 May 1986
+
| -
| 10 October 1989
+
| 13 July 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Guinea Bissau
 
| Guinea Bissau
| 12 September 2000
+
| 26 January 1990
| -
+
| 20 August 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Guyana
 
| Guyana
| 25 January 1988
+
| 30 September 1990
| 19 May 1988
+
| 14 January 1991
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Holy See
 
| Holy See
| -
+
| 20 April 1990
| 26 June 2002
+
| 20 April 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Honduras
 
| Honduras
| -
+
| 31 May 1990
| 5 December 1996
+
| 10 August 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Hungary
 
| Hungary
| 28 November 1986
+
| 14 March 1990
| 15 April 1987
+
| 7 October 1991
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Iceland
 
| Iceland
| 4 February 1985
+
| 26 January 1990
| 23 October 1998
+
| 23 October 1992
 
|-
 
|-
 +
| India
 +
| -
 +
| 11 December 1992
 +
|-
 +
| Indonesia
 +
| 26 January 1990
 +
| 5 September 1990
 +
|-
 +
| Iran (Islamic Republic of)
 +
| 5 September 1991
 +
[ 13 July 1994
 +
|-
 +
 
| Iraq
 
| Iraq
 
| -
 
| -
| 7 July 2011
+
| 15 June 1994
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Ireland
 
| Ireland
 +
| 30 September 1990
 
| 28 September 1992
 
| 28 September 1992
| 11 April 2002
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Israel  
 
| Israel  
| 22 October 1986
+
| 3 July 1990
 
| 3 October 1991
 
| 3 October 1991
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Italy
 
| Italy
| 4 February 1985
+
| 26 January 1990
| 12 January 1989
+
| 5 September 1991
 +
|-
 +
| Jamaica
 +
| 26 January 1990
 +
| 14 May 1991
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Japan
 
| Japan
| -
+
| 21 September 1990
| 29 June 1999
+
| 22 April 1994
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Jordan
 
| Jordan
| -
+
| 29 August 1990
| 13 November 1991
+
| 24 May 1991
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Kazakhstan
 
| Kazakhstan
| -
+
| 16 February 1994
| 26 August 1998
+
| 12 August 1994
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Kenya
 
| Kenya
 +
| 26 January 1990
 +
| 30 July 1990
 +
|-
 +
| Kiribati
 
| -
 
| -
| 21 February 1997
+
| 11 December 1995
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Kuwait
 
| Kuwait
| -
+
| 7 June 1990
| 8 March 1996
+
| 21 October 1991
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Kyrgyzstan
 
| Kyrgyzstan
 
| -
 
| -
| 5 September 1997
+
| 7 October 1994
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Lao People's Democratic Republic
 
| Lao People's Democratic Republic
| 21 September 2010
 
 
| -
 
| -
 +
| 8 May 1991
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Latvia
 
| Latvia
Line 392: Line 453:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Lebanon
 
| Lebanon
| -
+
| 26 January 1990
| 5 October 2000
+
| 14 May 1991
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Lesotho
 
| Lesotho
| -
+
| 21 August 1990
| 12 November 2001
+
| 10 March 1992
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Liberia
 
| Liberia
| -
+
| 26 April 1990
| 22 September 2004
+
| 4 June 1993
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Libyan Ara Jamahiriya
 
| Libyan Ara Jamahiriya
 
| -
 
| -
| 16 May 1989
+
| 15 April 1993
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Liechtenstien
 
| Liechtenstien
| 27 June 1985
+
| 30 September 1990
| 2 November 1990
+
| 22 December 1995
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Lithuania
 
| Lithuania
 
| -
 
| -
| 1 February 1996
+
| 31 January 1992
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Luxembourg
 
| Luxembourg
| 22 February 1985
+
| 21 March 1990
| 29 September 1987
+
| 7 March 1994
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Magadascar
 
| Magadascar
| 1 October 2001
+
| 19 April 1990
| 13 December 2005
+
| 19 March 1991
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Malawi
 
| Malawi
 
| -
 
| -
| 11 June 1996
+
| 2 January 1991
 +
|-
 +
| Malaysia
 +
| -
 +
| 17 February 1995
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Maldives
 
| Maldives
| -
+
| 21 August 1990
| 20 April 2004
+
| 11 February 1991
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Mali
 
| Mali
| -
+
| 26 January 1990
| 26 February 1999
+
| 20 September 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Malta  
 
| Malta  
| -
+
| 26 January 1990
| 13 September 1990
+
| 30 September 1990
 +
|-
 +
| Marshall Islands
 +
| 14 April 1993
 +
| 4 October 1993
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Mauritania
 
| Mauritania
| -
+
| 26 January 1990
| 17 November 2004
+
| 16 May 1991
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Mexico
 
| Mexico
| 18 March 1985
+
| 26 January 1990
| 23 January 1986
+
| 21 September 1990
 +
|-
 +
| Micronesia (Federal States of)
 +
| -
 +
| 5 May 1993
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Monaco
 
| Monaco
 
| -
 
| -
| 6 December 1991
+
| 21 June 1993
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Mongolia
 
| Mongolia
| -
+
| 26 January 1990
| 24 January 2002
+
| 5 July 1990
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Montenegro
 
| Montenegro
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| Morocco
 
| Morocco
| 8 January 1986
+
| 26 January 1990
 
| 21 June 1993
 
| 21 June 1993
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Mozambique  
 
| Mozambique  
 +
| 30 September 1990
 +
| 26 April 1994
 +
|-
 +
| Myanmar
 
| -
 
| -
| 14 September 1999
+
| 15 July 1991
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Namibia
 
| Namibia
| -
+
| 26 January 1990
| 28 November 1994
+
| 30 September 1990
 
|-
 
|-
| Naura
+
| Nauru
| 12 November 2001
 
 
| -
 
| -
 +
| 27 July 1994
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Nepal
 
| Nepal

Revision as of 15:45, 18 April 2012

Convention on the Rights of the Child


Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by the UN General Assembly resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989. Entered into force on September 2, 1990.

Relevant Provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child

Article 2

Right of the child to be protected from discrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child’s or his or her parent’s or legal guardian’s race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status; and also from discrimination or punishment on the basis of the status, activities, expressed opinions, or beliefs of the child’s parents, legal guardians, or family members.

Article 3

In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities of legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration.

Article 12

1. States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child.

2. For this purpose, the child shall in particular be provided the opportunity to be heard in any judicial and administrative proceedings affecting the child, either directly, or through a representative or an appropriate body, in a manner consistent with the procedural rules of national law.

Article 13

Freedom of expression.

Article 14

Freedom of thought, conscience and religion.

Article 15

Freedom of association and of peaceful assembly.

Article 16

1. No child shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation.

2. The child has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

Article 37

a) No child shall be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment. Neither capital punishment nor life imprisonment without possibility of release shall be imposed for offenses committed by persons below eighteen years of age;

b) No child shall be deprived of his liberty unlawfully or arbitrarily. The arrest, detention or imprisonment of a child shall be in conformity with the law and shall be used only as a measure of last resort and for the shortest appropriate period of time;

c) Every child deprived of liberty shall be treated with humanity and respect for the inherent dignity of the human person, and in a manner which takes into account the needs of persons of his or her age. Every child deprived of liberty shall be separated from adults unless it is considered in the child’s best interest not to do so and shall have the right to maintain contact with his or her family through correspondence and visits, save in exceptional circumstances;

d) Every child deprived of his liberty shall have the right to prompt access to legal and other appropriate assistance, as well as the right to challenge the legality of the deprivation of his liberty before a court of other competent, independent and impartial authority, and to a prompt decision on any such action.

Article 40

1. Right of the child alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law to be treated in manner consistent with the promotion of the child’s sense of dignity and worth, which reinforces the child’s respect for human rights and freedoms of others which takes into account child’s age and desirability of promoting the child’s reintegration and the child’s assuming a constructive role in society.

2. a) No child shall be alleged as, be accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law by reason of acts or omissions that were not prohibited by national or international law at the time they were committed,

b) Every child alleged as or accused of having infringed the penal law has at least the following guarantees:

(i) to be presumed innocent until proven guilty according to law;

(ii) to be informed promptly and directly of the charges against him, and, if appropriate, through his parents or legal guardians, and to have legal or other appropriate assistance in the preparation and presentation of his or her defense;

(iii) to have the matter determined without delay by a competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body in a fair hearing according to law, in the presence of legal or other appropriate assistance and, unless it is considered not to be in the best interest of the child, in particular, taking into account his age or situation, his parents of legal guardians;

(iv) not to be compelled to give testimony or to confess guilt; to examine or have examined adverse witness and to obtain the participation and examination of witnesses on his or her behalf under conditions of equality;

(v) if considered to have infringed the penal law, to have this decision and any measures imposed in consequence thereof reviewed by a higher competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body according to law;

(vi) to have the free assistance of an interpreter if the child cannot understand or speak the language used;

(vii) to have his privacy fully respected at all stages of the proceedings.

3. State Parties shall seek to promote the establishment of laws, procedures, authorities and institutions specifically applicable to children alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law, and, in particular:

a)The establishment of a minimum age below which children shall be presumed not to have the capacity to infringe the penal law;

b)Whenever appropriate and desirable, measures for dealing with such children without resorting to judicial proceedings, providing that human rights and legal safeguards are fully respected.

4. A variety of dispositions, such as care, guidance and supervision orders; counseling; probation; foster care; education and vocational training programmes and other alternatives to institutional care shall be available to ensure that children are dealt with in a manner appropriate to their well-being and proportionate both to their circumstances and the offence.

Status of Signatures, Ratifications, and Accessions to the Convention on the Rights of the Child

Country Signature Ratification/Accession
Afghanistan 27 September 1990 28 March 1994
Albania 26 January 1990 27 February 1992
Algeria 26 January 1990 16 April 1993
Andorra 2 October 1995 2 January 1996
Antigua and Barbuda 12 March 1991 5 October 1993
Argentina 29 June 1990 4 December 1990
Armenia - 23 June 1993
Australia 22 August 1990 17 December 1990
Austria 26 August 1990 6 August 1992
Azerbaijan - 13 August 1992
Bahamas 30 October 1990 20 February 1991
Bahrain - 13 February 1992
Bangladesh 26 January 1990 3 August 1990
Barbardos 19 April 1990 9 October 1990
Belarus 26 January 1990 1 October 1990
Belgium 26 January 1990 16 December 1991
Belize 2 March 1990 2 May 1990
Benin 25 April 1990 3 August 1990
Bhutan 4 June 1990 1 August 1990
Bolivia 8 March 1990 26 June 1990
Bosnia and Herzegovina - 1 September 1993
Botswana - 14 March 1995
Brazil 26 January 1990 24 September 1990
Brunei Darussalam - 27 December 1995
Bulgaria 31 May 1990 3 June 1991
Burkina Faso 26 January 1990 31 August 1990
Burundi 8 May 1990 19 October 1990
Cambodia - 15 October 1992
Cameroon 25 September 1990 11 January 1993
Canada 28 May 1990 31 December 1991
Cape Verde - 4 June 1992
Central African Republic 30 July 1990 23 April 1992
Chad 30 September 1990 2 October 1990
Chile 26 January 1990 13 August 1990
China 29 August 1990 2 March 1992
Colombia 26 January 1990 28 January 1991
Comoros 30 September 1990 22 June 1993
Congo - 14 October 1993
Cook Islands - 6 June 1997
Costa Rica 26 January 1990 21 August 1990
Ivory Coast 26 January 1990 4 February 1991
Croatia - 12 October 1992
Cuba 26 January 1990 21 August 1991
Cyprus 5 October 1990 7 February 1991
Czech Republic - 22 February 1993
Democratic Peaople's Republic of Korea 23 August 1990 21 September 1990
Democratic Republic of the Congo 20 March 1990 27 September 1990
Denmark 26 January 1990 19 July 1991
Djibouti 30 September 1990 6 December 1990
Dominica 26 January 1990 13 March 1991
Dominican Republic 8 August 1990 11 June 1991
Ecuador 26 January 1990 23 March 1990
Egypt 5 February 1990 5 July 1990
El Salvador 26 January 1990 10 July 1990
Equatorial Guinea - 15 June 1992
Eritrea 20 December 1993 3 August 1994
Estonia - 21 October 1991
Ethiopia - 14 March 1991
Fiji 2 July 1993 13 August 1993
Finland 26 January 1990 20 June 1991
France 26 January 1990 7 August 1990
Gabon 26 January 1990 9 February 1994
Gambia 5 February 1990 8 August 1990
Georgia - 2 June 1994
Germany 26 January 1990 6 March 1992
Ghana 29 January 1990 5 February 1990
Greece 26 January 1990 11 May 1993
Grenade 21 February 1990 5 November 1990
Guatemala 26 January 1990 6 June 1990
Guinea - 13 July 1990
Guinea Bissau 26 January 1990 20 August 1990
Guyana 30 September 1990 14 January 1991
Holy See 20 April 1990 20 April 1990
Honduras 31 May 1990 10 August 1990
Hungary 14 March 1990 7 October 1991
Iceland 26 January 1990 23 October 1992
India - 11 December 1992
Indonesia 26 January 1990 5 September 1990
Iran (Islamic Republic of) 5 September 1991

[ 13 July 1994

Iraq - 15 June 1994
Ireland 30 September 1990 28 September 1992
Israel 3 July 1990 3 October 1991
Italy 26 January 1990 5 September 1991
Jamaica 26 January 1990 14 May 1991
Japan 21 September 1990 22 April 1994
Jordan 29 August 1990 24 May 1991
Kazakhstan 16 February 1994 12 August 1994
Kenya 26 January 1990 30 July 1990
Kiribati - 11 December 1995
Kuwait 7 June 1990 21 October 1991
Kyrgyzstan - 7 October 1994
Lao People's Democratic Republic - 8 May 1991
Latvia - 14 April 1992
Lebanon 26 January 1990 14 May 1991
Lesotho 21 August 1990 10 March 1992
Liberia 26 April 1990 4 June 1993
Libyan Ara Jamahiriya - 15 April 1993
Liechtenstien 30 September 1990 22 December 1995
Lithuania - 31 January 1992
Luxembourg 21 March 1990 7 March 1994
Magadascar 19 April 1990 19 March 1991
Malawi - 2 January 1991
Malaysia - 17 February 1995
Maldives 21 August 1990 11 February 1991
Mali 26 January 1990 20 September 1990
Malta 26 January 1990 30 September 1990
Marshall Islands 14 April 1993 4 October 1993
Mauritania 26 January 1990 16 May 1991
Mexico 26 January 1990 21 September 1990
Micronesia (Federal States of) - 5 May 1993
Monaco - 21 June 1993
Mongolia 26 January 1990 5 July 1990
Montenegro - 23 October 2006
Morocco 26 January 1990 21 June 1993
Mozambique 30 September 1990 26 April 1994
Myanmar - 15 July 1991
Namibia 26 January 1990 30 September 1990
Nauru - 27 July 1994
Nepal - 14 May 1991
Netherlands 4 February 1985 21 December 1988
New Zealand 14 January 1986 10 December 1989
Nicaragua 15 April 1985 5 July 2005
Niger - 5 October 1998
Nigeria 28 July 1988 28 June 2001
Norway 4 February 1985 9 July 1986
Pakistan 17 April 2008 23 June 2010
Palau 20 September 2011 -
Panama 22 February 1985 24 August 1987
Paraguay 23 October 1989 12 March 1990
Peru 29 May 1985 7 July 1988
Philippines - 18 June 1986
Poland 13 January 1986 26 July 1989
Portugal 4 February 1985 9 February 1989
Qatar - 11 January 2000
Republic of Korea - 9 January 1995
Republic of Moldova - 28 November 1995
Romania - 18 December 1990
Russian Federation 10 December 1985 3 March 1987
Rwanda - 15 December 2008
San Marino 18 September 2002 27 November 2006
Sao Tome and Principe 6 September 2000 -
Saudi Arabia - 23 September 1997
Senegal 4 February 1985 21 August 1986
Serbia - 12 March 2001
Seychelles - 5 May 1992
Sierra Leone 18 March 1985 25 April 2001
Slovakia - 28 May 1993
Slovenia - 16 July 1993
Somalia - 24 January 1990
South Africa 29 January 1993 10December1998
Spain 4 February 1985 21 October 1987
Sri Lanka - 3 January 1994
St Vincent and the Grenadines - 1 August 2001
Sudan 4 June 1986 -
Swaziland - 26 March 2004
Sweden 4 February 1985 8 January 1986
Switzerland 4 February 1985 2 December 1986
Syrian Arab Republic - 19 August 2004
Tajikistan - 11 January 1995
Thailand - 2 October 2007
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia - 12 December 1994
Timor Leste - 16 April 2003
Togo 25 March 1987 18 November 1987
Tunisia 26 August 1987 23 September 1988
Turkey 25 January 1988 2 August 1988
Turkmenistan - 25 June 1999
Uganda - 3 November 1986
Ukraine 27 February 1986 24 February 1987
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 15 March 1985 8 December 1988
United State of America 18 April 1988 21 October 1994
Uruguay 4 February 1985 24 October 1986
Uzbekistan - 28 September 1995
Vanuatu - 12 July 2011
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 15 February 1985 29 July 1991
Yemen - 5 November 1991
Zambia - 7 October 1998


See International Law