Difference between revisions of "United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child"

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Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly
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Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by the UN General Assembly resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989. Entered into force on September 2, 1990.
resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989
 
entry into force 2 September 1990, in accordance with article 49
 
  
Preamble
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=Relevant Provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child=
The States Parties to the present Convention,
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====Article 2====
Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations,
 
recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human
 
family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
 
Bearing in mind that the peoples of the United Nations have, in the Charter, reaffirmed their faith in
 
fundamental human rights and in the dignity and worth of the human person, and have determined to
 
promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
 
Recognizing that the United Nations has, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the
 
International Covenants on Human Rights, proclaimed and agreed that everyone is entitled to all the
 
rights and freedoms set forth therein, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex,
 
language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status,
 
Recalling that, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations has proclaimed that
 
childhood is entitled to special care and assistance,
 
Convinced that the family, as the fundamental group of society and the natural environment for the
 
growth and well-being of all its members and particularly children, should be afforded the necessary
 
protection and assistance so that it can fully assume its responsibilities within the community,
 
Recognizing that the child, for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality, should
 
grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding,
 
Considering that the child should be fully prepared to live an individual life in society, and brought up
 
in the spirit of the ideals proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, and in particular in the spirit
 
of peace, dignity, tolerance, freedom, equality and solidarity,
 
Bearing in mind that the need to extend particular care to the child has been stated in the Geneva
 
Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1924 and in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child adopted
 
by the General Assembly on 20 November 1959 and recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human
 
Rights, in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (in particular in articles 23 and 24), in
 
the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (in particular in article 10) and in
 
the statutes and relevant instruments of specialized agencies and international organizations
 
concerned with the welfare of children,
 
Bearing in mind that, as indicated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, "the child, by reason of
 
his physical and mental immaturity, needs special safeguards and care, including appropriate legal
 
protection, before as well as after birth",
 
Recalling the provisions of the Declaration on Social and Legal Principles relating to the Protection and
 
Welfare of Children, with Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption Nationally and
 
Internationally; the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice
 
(The Beijing Rules) ; and the Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and
 
Armed Conflict, Recognizing that, in all countries in the world, there are children living in exceptionally
 
difficult conditions, and that such children need special consideration,
 
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Taking due account of the importance of the traditions and cultural values of each people for the
 
protection and harmonious development of the child, Recognizing the importance of international cooperation
 
for improving the living conditions of children in every country, in particular in the
 
developing countries,
 
Have agreed as follows:
 
'''
 
PART I
 
  
Article 1'''
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Right of the child to be protected from discrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child’s or his or her parent’s or legal guardian’s race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status; and also from discrimination or punishment on the basis of the status, activities, expressed opinions, or beliefs of the child’s parents, legal guardians, or family members.  
For the purposes of the present Convention, a child means every human being below the age of
 
eighteen years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier.
 
  
'''Article 2'''
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====Article 3====
  
1. States Parties shall respect and ensure the rights set forth in the present Convention to each child
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In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities of legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration.  
within their jurisdiction without discrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child's or his or her
 
parent's or legal guardian's race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national,
 
ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status.
 
  
2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that the child is protected against all
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====Article 12====
forms of discrimination or punishment on the basis of the status, activities, expressed opinions, or
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1. States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child.
beliefs of the child's parents, legal guardians, or family members.
 
  
'''Article 3'''
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2. For this purpose, the child shall in particular be provided the opportunity to be heard in any judicial and administrative proceedings affecting the child, either directly, or through a representative or an appropriate body, in a manner consistent with the procedural rules of national law.
  
1. In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare
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====Article 13====
institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child
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Freedom of expression.
shall be a primary consideration.
 
  
2. States Parties undertake to ensure the child such protection and care as is necessary for his or her
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====Article 14====
well-being, taking into account the rights and duties of his or her parents, legal guardians, or other
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Freedom of thought, conscience and religion.
individuals legally responsible for him or her, and, to this end, shall take all appropriate legislative and
 
administrative measures.
 
  
3. States Parties shall ensure that the institutions, services and facilities responsible for the care or
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====Article 15====
protection of children shall conform with the standards established by competent authorities,
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Freedom of association and of peaceful assembly.
particularly in the areas of safety, health, in the number and suitability of their staff, as well as
 
competent supervision.
 
  
'''Article 4'''
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====Article 16====
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1. No child shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation.
  
States Parties shall undertake all appropriate legislative, administrative, and other measures for the
 
implementation of the rights recognized in the present Convention. With regard to economic, social
 
and cultural rights, States Parties shall undertake such measures to the maximum extent of their
 
available resources and, where needed, within the framework of international co-operation.
 
 
'''Article 5'''
 
 
States Parties shall respect the responsibilities, rights and duties of parents or, where applicable, the
 
members of the extended family or community as provided for by local custom, legal guardians or
 
other persons legally responsible for the child, to provide, in a manner consistent with the evolving
 
capacities of the child, appropriate direction and guidance in the exercise by the child of the rights
 
recognized in the present Convention.
 
 
'''Article 6'''
 
 
 
1. States Parties recognize that every child has the inherent right to life.
 
2. States Parties shall ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child.
 
'''
 
Article 7'''
 
1. The child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have the right from birth to a name,
 
the right to acquire a nationality and. as far as possible, the right to know and be cared for by his or
 
her parents.
 
2. States Parties shall ensure the implementation of these rights in accordance with their national law
 
and their obligations under the relevant international instruments in this field, in particular where the
 
child would otherwise be stateless.
 
 
'''Article 8'''
 
1. States Parties undertake to respect the right of the child to preserve his or her identity, including
 
nationality, name and family relations as recognized by law without unlawful interference.
 
2. Where a child is illegally deprived of some or all of the elements of his or her identity, States Parties
 
shall provide appropriate assistance and protection, with a view to re-establishing speedily his or her
 
identity.
 
 
'''Article 9'''
 
1. States Parties shall ensure that a child shall not be separated from his or her parents against their
 
will, except when competent authorities subject to judicial review determine, in accordance with
 
applicable law and procedures, that such separation is necessary for the best interests of the child.
 
Such determination may be necessary in a particular case such as one involving abuse or neglect of
 
the child by the parents, or one where the parents are living separately and a decision must be made
 
as to the child's place of residence.
 
2. In any proceedings pursuant to paragraph 1 of the present article, all interested parties shall be
 
given an opportunity to participate in the proceedings and make their views known.
 
3. States Parties shall respect the right of the child who is separated from one or both parents to
 
maintain personal relations and direct contact with both parents on a regular basis, except if it is
 
contrary to the child's best interests.
 
4. Where such separation results from any action initiated by a State Party, such as the detention,
 
imprisonment, exile, deportation or death (including death arising from any cause while the person is
 
in the custody of the State) of one or both parents or of the child, that State Party shall, upon request,
 
provide the parents, the child or, if appropriate, another member of the family with the essential
 
information concerning the whereabouts of the absent member(s) of the family unless the provision of
 
the information would be detrimental to the well-being of the child. States Parties shall further ensure
 
that the submission of such a request shall of itself entail no adverse consequences for the person(s)
 
concerned.
 
 
'''Article 10'''
 
1. In accordance with the obligation of States Parties under article 9, paragraph 1, applications by a
 
child or his or her parents to enter or leave a State Party for the purpose of family reunification shall
 
be dealt with by States Parties in a positive, humane and expeditious manner. States Parties shall
 
further ensure that the submission of such a request shall entail no adverse consequences for the
 
applicants and for the members of their family.
 
2. A child whose parents reside in different States shall have the right to maintain on a regular basis,
 
save in exceptional circumstances personal relations and direct contacts with both parents. Towards
 
that end and in accordance with the obligation of States Parties under article 9, paragraph 1, States
 
Parties shall respect the right of the child and his or her parents to leave any country, including their
 
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own, and to enter their own country. The right to leave any country shall be subject only to such
 
restrictions as are prescribed by law and which are necessary to protect the national security, public
 
order (ordre public), public health or morals or the rights and freedoms of others and are consistent
 
with the other rights recognized in the present Convention.
 
 
'''Article 11'''
 
1. States Parties shall take measures to combat the illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad.
 
2. To this end, States Parties shall promote the conclusion of bilateral or multilateral agreements or
 
accession to existing agreements.
 
 
'''Article 12'''
 
1. States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to
 
express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due
 
weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child.
 
2. For this purpose, the child shall in particular be provided the opportunity to be heard in any judicial
 
and administrative proceedings affecting the child, either directly, or through a representative or an
 
appropriate body, in a manner consistent with the procedural rules of national law.
 
 
'''Article 13'''
 
1. The child shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek,
 
receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or
 
in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of the child's choice.
 
2. The exercise of this right may be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are
 
provided by law and are necessary:
 
(a) For respect of the rights or reputations of others; or
 
(b) For the protection of national security or of public order (ordre public), or of public health or
 
morals.
 
'''
 
Article 14'''
 
1. States Parties shall respect the right of the child to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.
 
2. States Parties shall respect the rights and duties of the parents and, when applicable, legal
 
guardians, to provide direction to the child in the exercise of his or her right in a manner consistent
 
with the evolving capacities of the child.
 
3. Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may be subject only to such limitations as are
 
prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health or morals, or the
 
fundamental rights and freedoms of others.
 
 
'''Article 15'''
 
1. States Parties recognize the rights of the child to freedom of association and to freedom of peaceful
 
assembly.
 
2. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of these rights other than those imposed in
 
conformity with the law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national
 
security or public safety, public order (ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the
 
protection of the rights and freedoms of others.
 
 
'''Article 16'''
 
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1. No child shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home
 
or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his or her honour and reputation.
 
 
2. The child has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
 
2. The child has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
  
'''Article 17'''
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====Article 37====
States Parties recognize the important function performed by the mass media and shall ensure that the
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a) No child shall be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment. Neither capital punishment nor life imprisonment without possibility of release shall be imposed for offenses committed by persons below eighteen years of age;
child has access to information and material from a diversity of national and international sources,
 
especially those aimed at the promotion of his or her social, spiritual and moral well-being and physical
 
and mental health.
 
To this end, States Parties shall:
 
(a) Encourage the mass media to disseminate information and material of social and cultural benefit to
 
the child and in accordance with the spirit of article 29;
 
(b) Encourage international co-operation in the production, exchange and dissemination of such
 
information and material from a diversity of cultural, national and international sources;
 
(c) Encourage the production and dissemination of children's books;
 
(d) Encourage the mass media to have particular regard to the linguistic needs of the child who
 
belongs to a minority group or who is indigenous;
 
(e) Encourage the development of appropriate guidelines for the protection of the child from
 
information and material injurious to his or her well-being, bearing in mind the provisions of articles 13
 
and 18.
 
 
 
'''Article 18'''
 
1. States Parties shall use their best efforts to ensure recognition of the principle that both parents
 
have common responsibilities for the upbringing and development of the child. Parents or, as the case
 
may be, legal guardians, have the primary responsibility for the upbringing and development of the
 
child. The best interests of the child will be their basic concern.
 
2. For the purpose of guaranteeing and promoting the rights set forth in the present Convention,
 
States Parties shall render appropriate assistance to parents and legal guardians in the performance of
 
their child-rearing responsibilities and shall ensure the development of institutions, facilities and
 
services for the care of children.
 
3. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that children of working parents have
 
the right to benefit from child-care services and facilities for which they are eligible.
 
'''
 
Article 19'''
 
1. States Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures
 
to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent
 
treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal
 
guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child.
 
2. Such protective measures should, as appropriate, include effective procedures for the establishment
 
of social programmes to provide necessary support for the child and for those who have the care of the
 
child, as well as for other forms of prevention and for identification, reporting, referral, investigation,
 
treatment and follow-up of instances of child maltreatment described heretofore, and, as appropriate,
 
for judicial involvement.
 
 
 
'''Article 20'''
 
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1. A child temporarily or permanently deprived of his or her family environment, or in whose own best
 
interests cannot be allowed to remain in that environment, shall be entitled to special protection and
 
assistance provided by the State.
 
2. States Parties shall in accordance with their national laws ensure alternative care for such a child.
 
3. Such care could include, inter alia, foster placement, kafalah of Islamic law, adoption or if necessary
 
placement in suitable institutions for the care of children. When considering solutions, due regard shall
 
be paid to the desirability of continuity in a child's upbringing and to the child's ethnic, religious,
 
cultural and linguistic background.
 
 
 
'''Article 21'''
 
States Parties that recognize and/or permit the system of adoption shall ensure that the best interests
 
of the child shall be the paramount consideration and they shall:
 
(a) Ensure that the adoption of a child is authorized only by competent authorities who determine, in
 
accordance with applicable law and procedures and on the basis of all pertinent and reliable
 
information, that the adoption is permissible in view of the child's status concerning parents, relatives
 
and legal guardians and that, if required, the persons concerned have given their informed consent to
 
the adoption on the basis of such counselling as may be necessary;
 
(b) Recognize that inter-country adoption may be considered as an alternative means of child's care, if
 
the child cannot be placed in a foster or an adoptive family or cannot in any suitable manner be cared
 
for in the child's country of origin;
 
(c) Ensure that the child concerned by inter-country adoption enjoys safeguards and standards
 
equivalent to those existing in the case of national adoption;
 
(d) Take all appropriate measures to ensure that, in inter-country adoption, the placement does not
 
result in improper financial gain for those involved in it;
 
(e) Promote, where appropriate, the objectives of the present article by concluding bilateral or
 
multilateral arrangements or agreements, and endeavour, within this framework, to ensure that the
 
placement of the child in another country is carried out by competent authorities or organs.
 
 
 
'''Article 22'''
 
1. States Parties shall take appropriate measures to ensure that a child who is seeking refugee status
 
or who is considered a refugee in accordance with applicable international or domestic law and
 
procedures shall, whether unaccompanied or accompanied by his or her parents or by any other
 
person, receive appropriate protection and humanitarian assistance in the enjoyment of applicable
 
rights set forth in the present Convention and in other international human rights or humanitarian
 
instruments to which the said States are Parties.
 
2. For this purpose, States Parties shall provide, as they consider appropriate, co-operation in any
 
efforts by the United Nations and other competent intergovernmental organizations or nongovernmental
 
organizations co-operating with the United Nations to protect and assist such a child and
 
to trace the parents or other members of the family of any refugee child in order to obtain information
 
necessary for reunification with his or her family. In cases where no parents or other members of the
 
family can be found, the child shall be accorded the same protection as any other child permanently or
 
temporarily deprived of his or her family environment for any reason , as set forth in the present
 
Convention.
 
 
 
'''Article 23'''
 
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1. States Parties recognize that a mentally or physically disabled child should enjoy a full and decent
 
life, in conditions which ensure dignity, promote self-reliance and facilitate the child's active
 
participation in the community.
 
2. States Parties recognize the right of the disabled child to special care and shall encourage and
 
ensure the extension, subject to available resources, to the eligible child and those responsible for his
 
or her care, of assistance for which application is made and which is appropriate to the child's condition
 
and to the circumstances of the parents or others caring for the child.
 
3. Recognizing the special needs of a disabled child, assistance extended in accordance with paragraph
 
2 of the present article shall be provided free of charge, whenever possible, taking into account the
 
financial resources of the parents or others caring for the child, and shall be designed to ensure that
 
the disabled child has effective access to and receives education, training, health care services,
 
rehabilitation services, preparation for employment and recreation opportunities in a manner conducive
 
to the child's achieving the fullest possible social integration and individual development, including his
 
or her cultural and spiritual development
 
4. States Parties shall promote, in the spirit of international cooperation, the exchange of appropriate
 
information in the field of preventive health care and of medical, psychological and functional
 
treatment of disabled children, including dissemination of and access to information concerning
 
methods of rehabilitation, education and vocational services, with the aim of enabling States Parties to
 
improve their capabilities and skills and to widen their experience in these areas. In this regard,
 
particular account shall be taken of the needs of developing countries.
 
 
 
'''Article 24'''
 
1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of
 
health and to facilities for the treatment of illness and rehabilitation of health. States Parties shall
 
strive to ensure that no child is deprived of his or her right of access to such health care services.
 
2. States Parties shall pursue full implementation of this right and, in particular, shall take appropriate
 
measures:
 
(a) To diminish infant and child mortality;
 
(b) To ensure the provision of necessary medical assistance and health care to all children with
 
emphasis on the development of primary health care;
 
(c) To combat disease and malnutrition, including within the framework of primary health care,
 
through, inter alia, the application of readily available technology and through the provision of
 
adequate nutritious foods and clean drinking-water, taking into consideration the dangers and risks of
 
environmental pollution;
 
(d) To ensure appropriate pre-natal and post-natal health care for mothers;
 
(e) To ensure that all segments of society, in particular parents and children, are informed, have
 
access to education and are supported in the use of basic knowledge of child health and nutrition, the
 
advantages of breastfeeding, hygiene and environmental sanitation and the prevention of accidents;
 
(f) To develop preventive health care, guidance for parents and family planning education and
 
services.
 
3. States Parties shall take all effective and appropriate measures with a view to abolishing traditional
 
practices prejudicial to the health of children.
 
4. States Parties undertake to promote and encourage international co-operation with a view to
 
achieving progressively the full realization of the right recognized in the present article. In this regard,
 
particular account shall be taken of the needs of developing countries.
 
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'''Article 25'''
 
States Parties recognize the right of a child who has been placed by the competent authorities for the
 
purposes of care, protection or treatment of his or her physical or mental health, to a periodic review
 
of the treatment provided to the child and all other circumstances relevant to his or her placement.
 
 
 
'''Article 26'''
 
1. States Parties shall recognize for every child the right to benefit from social security, including social
 
insurance, and shall take the necessary measures to achieve the full realization of this right in
 
accordance with their national law.
 
2. The benefits should, where appropriate, be granted, taking into account the resources and the
 
circumstances of the child and persons having responsibility for the maintenance of the child, as well
 
as any other consideration relevant to an application for benefits made by or on behalf of the child.
 
 
 
'''Article 27'''
 
1. States Parties recognize the right of every child to a standard of living adequate for the child's
 
physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development.
 
2. The parent(s) or others responsible for the child have the primary responsibility to secure, within
 
their abilities and financial capacities, the conditions of living necessary for the child's development.
 
3. States Parties, in accordance with national conditions and within their means, shall take appropriate
 
measures to assist parents and others responsible for the child to implement this right and shall in
 
case of need provide material assistance and support programmes, particularly with regard to
 
nutrition, clothing and housing.
 
4. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to secure the recovery of maintenance for the
 
child from the parents or other persons having financial responsibility for the child, both within the
 
State Party and from abroad. In particular, where the person having financial responsibility for the
 
child lives in a State different from that of the child, States Parties shall promote the accession to
 
international agreements or the conclusion of such agreements, as well as the making of other
 
appropriate arrangements.
 
 
 
'''Article 28'''
 
1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to education, and with a view to achieving this right
 
progressively and on the basis of equal opportunity, they shall, in particular:
 
(a) Make primary education compulsory and available free to all;
 
(b) Encourage the development of different forms of secondary education, including general and
 
vocational education, make them available and accessible to every child, and take appropriate
 
measures such as the introduction of free education and offering financial assistance in case of need;
 
(c) Make higher education accessible to all on the basis of capacity by every appropriate means;
 
(d) Make educational and vocational information and guidance available and accessible to all children;
 
(e) Take measures to encourage regular attendance at schools and the reduction of drop-out rates.
 
2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that school discipline is administered in
 
a manner consistent with the child's human dignity and in conformity with the present Convention.
 
3. States Parties shall promote and encourage international cooperation in matters relating to
 
education, in particular with a view to contributing to the elimination of ignorance and illiteracy
 
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throughout the world and facilitating access to scientific and technical knowledge and modern teaching
 
methods. In this regard, particular account shall be taken of the needs of developing countries.
 
 
 
'''Article 29'''
 
1. States Parties agree that the education of the child shall be directed to:
 
(a) The development of the child's personality, talents and mental and physical abilities to their fullest
 
potential;
 
(b) The development of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and for the principles
 
enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations;
 
(c) The development of respect for the child's parents, his or her own cultural identity, language and
 
values, for the national values of the country in which the child is living, the country from which he or
 
she may originate, and for civilizations different from his or her own;
 
(d) The preparation of the child for responsible life in a free society, in the spirit of understanding,
 
peace, tolerance, equality of sexes, and friendship among all peoples, ethnic, national and religious
 
groups and persons of indigenous origin;
 
(e) The development of respect for the natural environment.
 
2. No part of the present article or article 28 shall be construed so as to interfere with the liberty of
 
individuals and bodies to establish and direct educational institutions, subject always to the observance
 
of the principle set forth in paragraph 1 of the present article and to the requirements that the
 
education given in such institutions shall conform to such minimum standards as may be laid down by
 
the State.
 
 
 
'''Article 30'''
 
In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities or persons of indigenous origin exist, a
 
child belonging to such a minority or who is indigenous shall not be denied the right, in community
 
with other members of his or her group, to enjoy his or her own culture, to profess and practise his or
 
her own religion, or to use his or her own language.
 
 
 
'''Article 31'''
 
1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to rest and leisure, to engage in play and recreational
 
activities appropriate to the age of the child and to participate freely in cultural life and the arts.
 
2. States Parties shall respect and promote the right of the child to participate fully in cultural and
 
artistic life and shall encourage the provision of appropriate and equal opportunities for cultural,
 
artistic, recreational and leisure activity.
 
 
 
'''Article 32'''
 
1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to be protected from economic exploitation and from
 
performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child's education, or to be
 
harmful to the child's health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development.
 
2. States Parties shall take legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to ensure the
 
implementation of the present article. To this end, and having regard to the relevant provisions of
 
other international instruments, States Parties shall in particular:
 
(a) Provide for a minimum age or minimum ages for admission to employment;
 
(b) Provide for appropriate regulation of the hours and conditions of employment;
 
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(c) Provide for appropriate penalties or other sanctions to ensure the effective enforcement of the
 
present article.
 
 
 
'''Article 33'''
 
States Parties shall take all appropriate measures, including legislative, administrative, social and
 
educational measures, to protect children from the illicit use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic
 
substances as defined in the relevant international treaties, and to prevent the use of children in the
 
illicit production and trafficking of such substances.
 
 
 
'''Article 34'''
 
States Parties undertake to protect the child from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse.
 
For these purposes, States Parties shall in particular take all appropriate national, bilateral and
 
multilateral measures to prevent:
 
(a) The inducement or coercion of a child to engage in any unlawful sexual activity;
 
(b) The exploitative use of children in prostitution or other unlawful sexual practices;
 
(c) The exploitative use of children in pornographic performances and materials.
 
  
'''Article 35'''
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b) No child shall be deprived of his liberty unlawfully or arbitrarily. The arrest, detention or imprisonment of a child shall be in conformity with the law and shall be used only as a measure of last resort and for the shortest appropriate period of time;
States Parties shall take all appropriate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent the
 
abduction of, the sale of or traffic in children for any purpose or in any form.
 
  
'''Article 36'''
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c) Every child deprived of liberty shall be treated with humanity and respect for the inherent dignity of the human person, and in a manner which takes into account the needs of persons of his or her age.
States Parties shall protect the child against all other forms of exploitation prejudicial to any aspects of
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Every child deprived of liberty shall be separated from adults unless it is considered in the child’s best interest not to do so and shall have the right to maintain contact with his or her family through correspondence and visits, save in exceptional circumstances;
the child's welfare.
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 +
d) Every child deprived of his liberty shall have the right to prompt access to legal and other appropriate assistance, as well as the right to challenge the legality of the deprivation of his liberty before a court of other competent, independent and impartial authority, and to a prompt decision on any such action.  
  
'''Article 37'''
+
====Article 40====
States Parties shall ensure that:
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1. Right of the child alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law to be treated in manner consistent with the promotion of the child’s sense of dignity and worth, which reinforces the child’s respect for human rights and freedoms of others which takes into account child’s age and desirability of promoting the child’s reintegration and the child’s assuming a constructive role in society.  
(a) No child shall be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or
 
punishment. Neither capital punishment nor life imprisonment without possibility of release shall be
 
imposed for offences committed by persons below eighteen years of age;
 
(b) No child shall be deprived of his or her liberty unlawfully or arbitrarily. The arrest, detention or
 
imprisonment of a child shall be in conformity with the law and shall be used only as a measure of last
 
resort and for the shortest appropriate period of time;
 
(c) Every child deprived of liberty shall be treated with humanity and respect for the inherent dignity of
 
the human person, and in a manner which takes into account the needs of persons of his or her age.
 
In particular, every child deprived of liberty shall be separated from adults unless it is considered in
 
the child's best interest not to do so and shall have the right to maintain contact with his or her family
 
through correspondence and visits, save in exceptional circumstances;
 
(d) Every child deprived of his or her liberty shall have the right to prompt access to legal and other
 
appropriate assistance, as well as the right to challenge the legality of the deprivation of his or her
 
liberty before a court or other competent, independent and impartial authority, and to a prompt
 
decision on any such action.
 
  
'''Article 38'''
+
2. a) No child shall be alleged as, be accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law by reason of acts or omissions that were not prohibited by national or international law at the time they were committed,  
1. States Parties undertake to respect and to ensure respect for rules of international humanitarian law
 
applicable to them in armed conflicts which are relevant to the child.
 
11
 
2. States Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure that persons who have not attained the age
 
of fifteen years do not take a direct part in hostilities.
 
3. States Parties shall refrain from recruiting any person who has not attained the age of fifteen years
 
into their armed forces. In recruiting among those persons who have attained the age of fifteen years
 
but who have not attained the age of eighteen years, States Parties shall endeavour to give priority to
 
those who are oldest.
 
4. In accordance with their obligations under international humanitarian law to protect the civilian
 
population in armed conflicts, States Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure protection and
 
care of children who are affected by an armed conflict.
 
  
'''Article 39'''
+
b) Every child alleged as or accused of having infringed the penal law has at least the following guarantees:
States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to promote physical and psychological recovery and
 
social reintegration of a child victim of: any form of neglect, exploitation, or abuse; torture or any
 
other form of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment; or armed conflicts. Such recovery
 
and reintegration shall take place in an environment which fosters the health, self-respect and dignity
 
of the child.
 
  
'''Article 40'''
+
(i) to be presumed innocent until proven guilty according to law;  
1. States Parties recognize the right of every child alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having
 
infringed the penal law to be treated in a manner consistent with the promotion of the child's sense of
 
dignity and worth, which reinforces the child's respect for the human rights and fundamental freedoms
 
of others and which takes into account the child's age and the desirability of promoting the child's
 
reintegration and the child's assuming a constructive role in society.
 
2. To this end, and having regard to the relevant provisions of international instruments, States Parties
 
shall, in particular, ensure that:
 
(a) No child shall be alleged as, be accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law by
 
reason of acts or omissions that were not prohibited by national or international law at the time they
 
were committed;
 
(b) Every child alleged as or accused of having infringed the penal law has at least the following
 
guarantees:
 
(i) To be presumed innocent until proven guilty according to law;
 
(ii) To be informed promptly and directly of the charges against him or her, and, if appropriate,
 
through his or her parents or legal guardians, and to have legal or other appropriate assistance in the
 
preparation and presentation of his or her defence;
 
(iii) To have the matter determined without delay by a competent, independent and impartial authority
 
or judicial body in a fair hearing according to law, in the presence of legal or other appropriate
 
assistance and, unless it is considered not to be in the best interest of the child, in particular, taking
 
into account his or her age or situation, his or her parents or legal guardians;
 
(iv) Not to be compelled to give testimony or to confess guilt; to examine or have examined adverse
 
witnesses and to obtain the participation and examination of witnesses on his or her behalf under
 
conditions of equality;
 
(v) If considered to have infringed the penal law, to have this decision and any measures imposed in
 
consequence thereof reviewed by a higher competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial
 
body according to law;
 
12
 
(vi) To have the free assistance of an interpreter if the child cannot understand or speak the language
 
used;
 
(vii) To have his or her privacy fully respected at all stages of the proceedings.
 
3. States Parties shall seek to promote the establishment of laws, procedures, authorities and
 
institutions specifically applicable to children alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed
 
the penal law, and, in particular:
 
(a) The establishment of a minimum age below which children shall be presumed not to have the
 
capacity to infringe the penal law;
 
(b) Whenever appropriate and desirable, measures for dealing with such children without resorting to
 
judicial proceedings, providing that human rights and legal safeguards are fully respected. 4. A variety
 
of dispositions, such as care, guidance and supervision orders; counselling; probation; foster care;
 
education and vocational training programmes and other alternatives to institutional care shall be
 
available to ensure that children are dealt with in a manner appropriate to their well-being and
 
proportionate both to their circumstances and the offence.
 
  
'''Article 41'''
+
(ii) to be informed promptly and directly of the charges against him, and, if appropriate, through his parents or legal guardians, and to have legal or other appropriate assistance in the preparation and presentation of his or her defense;
Nothing in the present Convention shall affect any provisions which are more conducive to the
 
realization of the rights of the child and which may be contained in:
 
(a) The law of a State party; or
 
(b) International law in force for that State.
 
  
'''PART II
+
(iii) to have  the matter determined without delay by a competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body in a fair hearing according to law, in the presence of legal or other appropriate assistance and, unless it is considered not to be in the best interest of the child, in particular, taking into account his age or situation, his parents of legal guardians;
Article 42'''
 
States Parties undertake to make the principles and provisions of the Convention widely known, by
 
appropriate and active means, to adults and children alike.
 
  
'''Article 43'''
+
(iv) not to be compelled to give testimony or to confess guilt; to examine or have examined adverse witness and to obtain the participation and examination of witnesses on his or her behalf under conditions of equality;
1. For the purpose of examining the progress made by States Parties in achieving the realization of the
 
obligations undertaken in the present Convention, there shall be established a Committee on the
 
Rights of the Child, which shall carry out the functions hereinafter provided.
 
2. The Committee shall consist of ten experts of high moral standing and recognized competence in
 
the field covered by this Convention. The members of the Committee shall be elected by States Parties
 
from among their nationals and shall serve in their personal capacity, consideration being given to
 
equitable geographical distribution, as well as to the principal legal systems.
 
3. The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from a list of persons nominated by
 
States Parties. Each State Party may nominate one person from among its own nationals.
 
4. The initial election to the Committee shall be held no later than six months after the date of the
 
entry into force of the present Convention and thereafter every second year. At least four months
 
before the date of each election, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall address a letter to
 
States Parties inviting them to submit their nominations within two months. The Secretary-General
 
shall subsequently prepare a list in alphabetical order of all persons thus nominated, indicating States
 
Parties which have nominated them, and shall submit it to the States Parties to the present
 
Convention.
 
5. The elections shall be held at meetings of States Parties convened by the Secretary-General at
 
United Nations Headquarters. At those meetings, for which two thirds of States Parties shall constitute
 
13
 
a quorum, the persons elected to the Committee shall be those who obtain the largest number of votes
 
and an absolute majority of the votes of the representatives of States Parties present and voting.
 
6. The members of the Committee shall be elected for a term of four years. They shall be eligible for
 
re-election if renominated. The term of five of the members elected at the first election shall expire at
 
the end of two years; immediately after the first election, the names of these five members shall be
 
chosen by lot by the Chairman of the meeting.
 
7. If a member of the Committee dies or resigns or declares that for any other cause he or she can no
 
longer perform the duties of the Committee, the State Party which nominated the member shall
 
appoint another expert from among its nationals to serve for the remainder of the term, subject to the
 
approval of the Committee.
 
8. The Committee shall establish its own rules of procedure.
 
9. The Committee shall elect its officers for a period of two years.
 
10. The meetings of the Committee shall normally be held at United Nations Headquarters or at any
 
other convenient place as determined by the Committee. The Committee shall normally meet annually.
 
The duration of the meetings of the Committee shall be determined, and reviewed, if necessary, by a
 
meeting of the States Parties to the present Convention, subject to the approval of the General
 
Assembly.
 
11. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the necessary staff and facilities for the
 
effective performance of the functions of the Committee under the present Convention.
 
12. With the approval of the General Assembly, the members of the Committee established under the
 
present Convention shall receive emoluments from United Nations resources on such terms and
 
conditions as the Assembly may decide.
 
  
'''Article 44'''
+
(v) if considered to have infringed the penal law, to have this decision and any measures imposed in consequence thereof reviewed by a higher competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body according to law;
1. States Parties undertake to submit to the Committee, through the Secretary-General of the United
 
Nations, reports on the measures they have adopted which give effect to the rights recognized herein
 
and on the progress made on the enjoyment of those rights
 
(a) Within two years of the entry into force of the Convention for the State Party concerned;
 
(b) Thereafter every five years.
 
2. Reports made under the present article shall indicate factors and difficulties, if any, affecting the
 
degree of fulfillment of the obligations under the present Convention. Reports shall also contain
 
sufficient information to provide the Committee with a comprehensive understanding of the
 
implementation of the Convention in the country concerned.
 
3. A State Party which has submitted a comprehensive initial report to the Committee need not, in its
 
subsequent reports submitted in accordance with paragraph 1 (b) of the present article, repeat basic
 
information previously provided.
 
4. The Committee may request from States Parties further information relevant to the implementation
 
of the Convention.
 
5. The Committee shall submit to the General Assembly, through the Economic and Social Council,
 
every two years, reports on its activities.
 
6. States Parties shall make their reports widely available to the public in their own countries.
 
  
'''Article 45'''
+
(vi) to have the free assistance of an interpreter if the child cannot understand or speak the language used;  
14
 
In order to foster the effective implementation of the Convention and to encourage international cooperation
 
in the field covered by the Convention:
 
(a) The specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund, and other United Nations organs shall
 
be entitled to be represented at the consideration of the implementation of such provisions of the
 
present Convention as fall within the scope of their mandate. The Committee may invite the
 
specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund and other competent bodies as it may
 
consider appropriate to provide expert advice on the implementation of the Convention in areas falling
 
within the scope of their respective mandates. The Committee may invite the specialized agencies, the
 
United Nations Children's Fund, and other United Nations organs to submit reports on the
 
implementation of the Convention in areas falling within the scope of their activities;
 
(b) The Committee shall transmit, as it may consider appropriate, to the specialized agencies, the
 
United Nations Children's Fund and other competent bodies, any reports from States Parties that
 
contain a request, or indicate a need, for technical advice or assistance, along with the Committee's
 
observations and suggestions, if any, on these requests or indications;
 
(c) The Committee may recommend to the General Assembly to request the Secretary-General to
 
undertake on its behalf studies on specific issues relating to the rights of the child;
 
(d) The Committee may make suggestions and general recommendations based on information
 
received pursuant to articles 44 and 45 of the present Convention. Such suggestions and general
 
recommendations shall be transmitted to any State Party concerned and reported to the General
 
Assembly, together with comments, if any, from States Parties.
 
  
'''PART III
+
(vii) to have his privacy fully respected at all stages of the proceedings.
Article 46'''
 
The present Convention shall be open for signature by all States.
 
  
'''Article 47'''
+
3. State Parties shall seek to promote the establishment of laws, procedures, authorities and institutions specifically applicable to children alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law, and, in particular:
The present Convention is subject to ratification. Instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the
 
Secretary-General of the United Nations.
 
'''
 
Article 48'''
 
The present Convention shall remain open for accession by any State. The instruments of accession
 
shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
 
  
'''Article 49'''
+
a)The establishment of a minimum age below which children shall be presumed not to have the capacity to infringe the penal law;
1. The present Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following the date of deposit with
 
the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession.
 
2. For each State ratifying or acceding to the Convention after the deposit of the twentieth instrument
 
of ratification or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the deposit
 
by such State of its instrument of ratification or accession.
 
  
'''Article 50'''
+
b)Whenever appropriate and desirable, measures for dealing with such children without resorting to judicial proceedings, providing that human rights and legal safeguards are fully respected.
1. Any State Party may propose an amendment and file it with the Secretary-General of the United
 
Nations. The Secretary-General shall thereupon communicate the proposed amendment to States
 
Parties, with a request that they indicate whether they favour a conference of States Parties for the
 
purpose of considering and voting upon the proposals. In the event that, within four months from the
 
date of such communication, at least one third of the States Parties favour such a conference, the
 
Secretary-General shall convene the conference under the auspices of the United Nations. Any
 
15
 
amendment adopted by a majority of States Parties present and voting at the conference shall be
 
submitted to the General Assembly for approval.
 
2. An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 1 of the present article shall enter into force
 
when it has been approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations and accepted by a twothirds
 
majority of States Parties.
 
3. When an amendment enters into force, it shall be binding on those States Parties which have
 
accepted it, other States Parties still being bound by the provisions of the present Convention and any
 
earlier amendments which they have accepted.
 
  
'''Article 51'''
+
4. A variety of dispositions, such as care, guidance and supervision orders; counseling; probation; foster care; education and vocational training programmes and other alternatives to institutional care shall be available to ensure that children are dealt with in a manner appropriate to their well-being and proportionate both to their circumstances and the offence.
1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall receive and circulate to all States the text of
 
reservations made by States at the time of ratification or accession.
 
2. A reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the present Convention shall not be
 
permitted.
 
3. Reservations may be withdrawn at any time by notification to that effect addressed to the
 
Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall then inform all States. Such notification shall take
 
effect on the date on which it is received by the Secretary-General
 
  
'''Article 52'''
+
=Status of Signatures, Ratifications, and Accessions to the Convention on the Rights of the Child=
A State Party may denounce the present Convention by written notification to the Secretary-General of
+
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
the United Nations. Denunciation becomes effective one year after the date of receipt of the
+
|-
notification by the Secretary-General.
+
! Country
'''
+
! Signature
Article 53'''
+
! Ratification/Accession
The Secretary-General of the United Nations is designated as the depositary of the present
+
|-
Convention.
+
| Afghanistan
 +
| 4 February 1985
 +
| 1 April 1987
 +
|-
 +
| Albania
 +
| -
 +
| 11 May 1994
 +
|-
 +
| Algeria
 +
| 26 November 1985
 +
| 12 September 1989
 +
|-
 +
| Andorra
 +
| 5 August 2002
 +
| 22 September 2006
 +
|-
 +
| Antigua and Barbuda
 +
| -
 +
| 19 July 1993
 +
|-
 +
| Argentina
 +
| 4 February 1985
 +
| 24 September 1986
 +
|-
 +
| Armenia
 +
| -
 +
| 13 September 1993
 +
|-
 +
| Australia
 +
| 10 December 1985
 +
| 8 August 1989
 +
|-
 +
| Austria
 +
| 14 March 1985
 +
| 29 July 1987
 +
|-
 +
| Azerbaijan
 +
| -
 +
| 16 August 1996
 +
|-
 +
| Bahamas
 +
| 16 December 2008
 +
| -
 +
|-
 +
| Bahrain
 +
| -
 +
| 6 March 1998
 +
|-
 +
| Bangladesh
 +
| -
 +
| 5 October 1998
 +
|-
 +
| Belarus
 +
| 19 December 1985
 +
| 13 March 1987
 +
|-
 +
| Belgium
 +
| 4 February 1985
 +
| 25 June 1999
 +
|-
 +
| Belize
 +
| -
 +
| 17 March 1986
 +
|-
 +
| Benin
 +
| -
 +
|12 March 1992
 +
|-
 +
| Bolivia
 +
| 4 February 1985
 +
|  12 April 1999
 +
|-
 +
|Bosnia and Herzegovina
 +
| -
 +
| 1 September 1993
 +
|-
 +
| Botswana
 +
| 8 September 2000
 +
| 8 September 2000
 +
|-
 +
| Brazil
 +
| 23 September 1985
 +
| 28 September 1989
 +
|-
 +
| Bulgaria
 +
| 10 June 1986
 +
| 16 December 1986
 +
|-
 +
| Burkina Faso
 +
| -
 +
| 4 January 1999
 +
|-
 +
| Burundi
 +
| -
 +
| 18 February 1993
 +
|-
 +
| Cambodia
 +
| -
 +
| 15 October 1992
 +
|-
 +
| Cameroon
 +
| -
 +
| 19 December 1986
 +
|-
 +
| Canada
 +
| 23 August 1985
 +
| 24 June 1987
 +
|-
 +
| Cape Verde
 +
| -
 +
| 4 June 1992
 +
|-
 +
| Chad
 +
| -
 +
| 9 June 1995
 +
|-
 +
| Chile
 +
| 23 September 1987
 +
| 30 September 1988
 +
|-
 +
| China
 +
| 12 December 1986
 +
| 4 October 1988
 +
|-
 +
| Colombia
 +
| 10 April 1985
 +
| 8 December 1987
  
'''Article 54'''
+
|-
The original of the present Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and
+
| Comoros
Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United
+
| 22 September 2000
Nations.
+
| -
 +
|-
 +
| Congo
 +
| -
 +
| 30 July 2003
 +
|-
 +
| Costa Rica
 +
| 4 February 1985
 +
| 11 November 1993
 +
|-
 +
| Ivory Coast
 +
| -
 +
| 18 December 1995
 +
|-
 +
| Croatia
 +
| -
 +
| 12 October 1992
 +
|-
 +
| Cuba
 +
| 27 January 1986
 +
| 17 May 1995
 +
|-
 +
| Cyprus
 +
| 9 October 1985
 +
| 18 July 1991
 +
|-
 +
| Czech Republic
 +
| -
 +
| 22 February 1993
 +
|-
 +
| Democratic Republic of the Congo
 +
| -
 +
| 18 March 1996
 +
|-
 +
| Denmark
 +
| 4 February 1985
 +
| 27 May 1987
 +
|-
 +
| Djibouti
 +
| -
 +
| 5 November 2002
 +
|-
 +
| Dominican Republic
 +
| 4 February 1985
 +
| -
 +
|-
 +
| Ecuador
 +
| 4 February 1985
 +
| 30 March 1988
 +
|-
 +
| Egypt
 +
| -
 +
| 25 June 1986
 +
|-
 +
| El Salvador
 +
| -
 +
| 17 June 1996
 +
|-
 +
| Equatorial Guinea
 +
| -
 +
| 8 October 2002
 +
|-
 +
| Estonia
 +
| -
 +
| 21 October 1991
 +
|-
 +
| Ethiopia
 +
| -
 +
| 14 March 1994
 +
|-
 +
| Finland
 +
| 4 February 1985
 +
| 30 August 1989
 +
|-
 +
| France
 +
| 4 February 1985
 +
| 18 February 1986
 +
|-
 +
| Gabon
 +
| 21 January 1986
 +
| 8 September 2000
 +
|-
 +
| Gambia
 +
| 23 October 1985
 +
| -
 +
|-
 +
| Georgia
 +
| -
 +
| 26 October 1994
 +
|-
 +
| Germany
 +
| 13 October 1986
 +
| 1 October 1990
 +
|-
 +
| Ghana
 +
| 7 September 2000
 +
| 7 September 2000
 +
|-
 +
| Greece
 +
| 4 February 1985
 +
| 6 October 1988
 +
|-
 +
| Guatemala
 +
| -
 +
| 5 January 1990
 +
|-
 +
| Guinea
 +
| 30 May 1986
 +
| 10 October 1989
 +
|-
 +
| Guinea Bissau
 +
| 12 September 2000
 +
| -
 +
|-
 +
| Guyana
 +
| 25 January 1988
 +
| 19 May 1988
 +
|-
 +
| Holy See
 +
| -
 +
| 26 June 2002
 +
|-
 +
| Honduras
 +
| -
 +
| 5 December 1996
 +
|-
 +
| Hungary
 +
| 28 November 1986
 +
| 15 April 1987
 +
|-
 +
| Iceland
 +
| 4 February 1985
 +
| 23 October 1998
 +
|-
 +
| Iraq
 +
| -
 +
| 7 July 2011
 +
|-
 +
| Ireland
 +
| 28 September 1992
 +
| 11 April 2002
 +
|-
 +
| Israel
 +
| 22 October 1986
 +
| 3 October 1991
 +
|-
 +
| Italy
 +
| 4 February 1985
 +
| 12 January 1989
 +
|-
 +
| Japan
 +
| -
 +
| 29 June 1999
 +
|-
 +
| Jordan
 +
| -
 +
| 13 November 1991
 +
|-
 +
| Kazakhstan
 +
| -
 +
| 26 August 1998
 +
|-
 +
| Kenya
 +
| -
 +
| 21 February 1997
 +
|-
 +
| Kuwait
 +
| -
 +
| 8 March 1996
 +
|-
 +
| Kyrgyzstan
 +
| -
 +
| 5 September 1997
 +
|-
 +
| Lao People's Democratic Republic
 +
| 21 September 2010
 +
| -
 +
|-
 +
| Latvia
 +
| -
 +
| 14 April 1992
 +
|-
 +
| Lebanon
 +
| -
 +
| 5 October 2000
 +
|-
 +
| Lesotho
 +
| -
 +
| 12 November 2001
 +
|-
 +
| Liberia
 +
| -
 +
| 22 September 2004
 +
|-
 +
| Libyan Ara Jamahiriya
 +
| -
 +
| 16 May 1989
 +
|-
 +
| Liechtenstien
 +
| 27 June 1985
 +
| 2 November 1990
 +
|-
 +
| Lithuania
 +
| -
 +
| 1 February 1996
 +
|-
 +
| Luxembourg
 +
| 22 February 1985
 +
| 29 September 1987
 +
|-
 +
| Magadascar
 +
| 1 October 2001
 +
| 13 December 2005
 +
|-
 +
| Malawi
 +
| -
 +
| 11 June 1996
 +
|-
 +
| Maldives
 +
| -
 +
| 20 April 2004
 +
|-
 +
| Mali
 +
| -
 +
| 26 February 1999
 +
|-
 +
| Malta
 +
| -
 +
| 13 September 1990
 +
|-
 +
| Mauritania
 +
| -
 +
| 17 November 2004
 +
|-
 +
| Mexico
 +
| 18 March 1985
 +
| 23 January 1986
 +
|-
 +
| Monaco
 +
| -
 +
| 6 December 1991
 +
|-
 +
| Mongolia
 +
| -
 +
| 24 January 2002
 +
|-
 +
| Montenegro
 +
| -
 +
| 23 October 2006
 +
|-
 +
| Morocco
 +
| 8 January 1986
 +
| 21 June 1993
 +
|-
 +
| Mozambique
 +
| -
 +
| 14 September 1999
 +
|-
 +
| Namibia
 +
| -
 +
| 28 November 1994
 +
|-
 +
| Naura
 +
| 12 November 2001
 +
| -
 +
|-
 +
| Nepal
 +
| -
 +
| 14 May 1991
 +
|-
 +
| Netherlands
 +
| 4 February 1985
 +
| 21 December 1988
 +
|-
 +
| New Zealand
 +
| 14 January 1986
 +
| 10 December 1989
 +
|-
 +
| Nicaragua
 +
| 15 April 1985
 +
| 5 July 2005
 +
|-
 +
| Niger
 +
| -
 +
| 5 October 1998
 +
|-
 +
| Nigeria
 +
| 28 July 1988
 +
| 28 June 2001
 +
|-
 +
| Norway
 +
| 4 February 1985
 +
| 9 July 1986
 +
|-
 +
| Pakistan
 +
| 17 April 2008
 +
| 23 June 2010
 +
|-
 +
| Palau
 +
| 20 September 2011
 +
| -
 +
|-
 +
| Panama
 +
| 22 February 1985
 +
| 24 August 1987
 +
|-
 +
| Paraguay
 +
| 23 October 1989
 +
| 12 March 1990
 +
|-
 +
| Peru
 +
| 29 May 1985
 +
| 7 July 1988
 +
|-
 +
| Philippines
 +
| -
 +
| 18 June 1986
 +
|-
 +
| Poland
 +
| 13 January 1986
 +
| 26 July 1989
 +
|-
 +
| Portugal
 +
| 4 February 1985
 +
| 9 February 1989
 +
|-
 +
| Qatar
 +
| -
 +
| 11 January 2000
 +
|-
 +
| Republic of Korea
 +
| -
 +
| 9 January 1995
 +
|-
 +
| Republic of Moldova
 +
| -
 +
| 28 November 1995
 +
|-
 +
| Romania
 +
| -
 +
| 18 December 1990
 +
|-
 +
| Russian Federation
 +
| 10 December 1985
 +
| 3 March 1987
 +
|-
 +
| Rwanda
 +
| -
 +
| 15 December 2008
 +
|-
 +
| San Marino
 +
| 18 September 2002
 +
| 27 November 2006
 +
|-
 +
| Sao Tome and Principe
 +
| 6 September 2000
 +
| -
 +
|-
 +
| Saudi Arabia
 +
| -
 +
| 23 September 1997
 +
|-
 +
| Senegal
 +
| 4 February 1985
 +
| 21 August 1986
 +
|-
 +
| Serbia
 +
| -
 +
| 12 March 2001
 +
|-
 +
| Seychelles
 +
| -
 +
| 5 May 1992
 +
|-
 +
| Sierra Leone
 +
| 18 March 1985
 +
| 25 April 2001
 +
|-
 +
| Slovakia
 +
| -
 +
| 28 May 1993
 +
|-
 +
| Slovenia
 +
| -
 +
| 16 July 1993
 +
|-
 +
| Somalia
 +
| -
 +
| 24 January 1990
 +
|-
 +
| South Africa
 +
| 29 January 1993
 +
| 10December1998
 +
|-
 +
| Spain
 +
| 4 February 1985
 +
| 21 October 1987
 +
|-
 +
| Sri Lanka
 +
| -
 +
| 3 January 1994
 +
|-
 +
| St Vincent and the Grenadines
 +
| -
 +
| 1 August 2001
 +
|-
 +
| Sudan
 +
| 4 June 1986
 +
| -
 +
|-
 +
| Swaziland
 +
| -
 +
| 26 March 2004
 +
|-
 +
| Sweden
 +
| 4 February 1985
 +
| 8 January 1986
 +
|-
 +
| Switzerland
 +
| 4 February 1985
 +
| 2 December 1986
 +
|-
 +
| Syrian Arab Republic
 +
| -
 +
| 19 August 2004
 +
|-
 +
| Tajikistan
 +
| -
 +
| 11 January 1995
 +
|-
 +
| Thailand
 +
| -
 +
| 2 October 2007
 +
|-
 +
| The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
 +
| -
 +
| 12 December 1994
 +
|-
 +
| Timor Leste
 +
| -
 +
| 16 April 2003
 +
|-
 +
| Togo
 +
| 25 March 1987
 +
| 18 November 1987
 +
|-
 +
| Tunisia
 +
| 26 August 1987
 +
| 23 September 1988
 +
|-
 +
| Turkey
 +
| 25 January 1988
 +
| 2 August 1988
 +
|-
 +
| Turkmenistan
 +
| -
 +
| 25 June 1999
 +
|-
 +
| Uganda
 +
| -
 +
| 3 November 1986
 +
|-
 +
| Ukraine
 +
| 27 February 1986
 +
| 24 February 1987
 +
|-
 +
| United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
 +
| 15 March 1985
 +
| 8 December 1988
 +
|-
 +
| United State of America
 +
| 18 April 1988
 +
| 21 October 1994
 +
|-
 +
| Uruguay
 +
| 4 February 1985
 +
| 24 October 1986
 +
|-
 +
| Uzbekistan
 +
| -
 +
| 28 September 1995
 +
|-
 +
| Vanuatu
 +
| -
 +
| 12 July 2011
 +
|-
 +
| Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
 +
| 15 February 1985
 +
| 29 July 1991
 +
|-
 +
| Yemen
 +
| -
 +
| 5 November 1991
 +
|-
 +
| Zambia
 +
| -
 +
| 7 October 1998
 +
|}
  
IN WITNESS THEREOF the undersigned plenipotentiaries, being duly authorized thereto by
 
their respective governments, have signed the present Convention.
 
  
 
See [[International Law]]
 
See [[International Law]]

Revision as of 15:06, 18 April 2012

Convention on the Rights of the Child


Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by the UN General Assembly resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989. Entered into force on September 2, 1990.

Relevant Provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child

Article 2

Right of the child to be protected from discrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child’s or his or her parent’s or legal guardian’s race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status; and also from discrimination or punishment on the basis of the status, activities, expressed opinions, or beliefs of the child’s parents, legal guardians, or family members.

Article 3

In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities of legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration.

Article 12

1. States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child.

2. For this purpose, the child shall in particular be provided the opportunity to be heard in any judicial and administrative proceedings affecting the child, either directly, or through a representative or an appropriate body, in a manner consistent with the procedural rules of national law.

Article 13

Freedom of expression.

Article 14

Freedom of thought, conscience and religion.

Article 15

Freedom of association and of peaceful assembly.

Article 16

1. No child shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation.

2. The child has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

Article 37

a) No child shall be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment. Neither capital punishment nor life imprisonment without possibility of release shall be imposed for offenses committed by persons below eighteen years of age;

b) No child shall be deprived of his liberty unlawfully or arbitrarily. The arrest, detention or imprisonment of a child shall be in conformity with the law and shall be used only as a measure of last resort and for the shortest appropriate period of time;

c) Every child deprived of liberty shall be treated with humanity and respect for the inherent dignity of the human person, and in a manner which takes into account the needs of persons of his or her age. Every child deprived of liberty shall be separated from adults unless it is considered in the child’s best interest not to do so and shall have the right to maintain contact with his or her family through correspondence and visits, save in exceptional circumstances;

d) Every child deprived of his liberty shall have the right to prompt access to legal and other appropriate assistance, as well as the right to challenge the legality of the deprivation of his liberty before a court of other competent, independent and impartial authority, and to a prompt decision on any such action.

Article 40

1. Right of the child alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law to be treated in manner consistent with the promotion of the child’s sense of dignity and worth, which reinforces the child’s respect for human rights and freedoms of others which takes into account child’s age and desirability of promoting the child’s reintegration and the child’s assuming a constructive role in society.

2. a) No child shall be alleged as, be accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law by reason of acts or omissions that were not prohibited by national or international law at the time they were committed,

b) Every child alleged as or accused of having infringed the penal law has at least the following guarantees:

(i) to be presumed innocent until proven guilty according to law;

(ii) to be informed promptly and directly of the charges against him, and, if appropriate, through his parents or legal guardians, and to have legal or other appropriate assistance in the preparation and presentation of his or her defense;

(iii) to have the matter determined without delay by a competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body in a fair hearing according to law, in the presence of legal or other appropriate assistance and, unless it is considered not to be in the best interest of the child, in particular, taking into account his age or situation, his parents of legal guardians;

(iv) not to be compelled to give testimony or to confess guilt; to examine or have examined adverse witness and to obtain the participation and examination of witnesses on his or her behalf under conditions of equality;

(v) if considered to have infringed the penal law, to have this decision and any measures imposed in consequence thereof reviewed by a higher competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body according to law;

(vi) to have the free assistance of an interpreter if the child cannot understand or speak the language used;

(vii) to have his privacy fully respected at all stages of the proceedings.

3. State Parties shall seek to promote the establishment of laws, procedures, authorities and institutions specifically applicable to children alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law, and, in particular:

a)The establishment of a minimum age below which children shall be presumed not to have the capacity to infringe the penal law;

b)Whenever appropriate and desirable, measures for dealing with such children without resorting to judicial proceedings, providing that human rights and legal safeguards are fully respected.

4. A variety of dispositions, such as care, guidance and supervision orders; counseling; probation; foster care; education and vocational training programmes and other alternatives to institutional care shall be available to ensure that children are dealt with in a manner appropriate to their well-being and proportionate both to their circumstances and the offence.

Status of Signatures, Ratifications, and Accessions to the Convention on the Rights of the Child

Country Signature Ratification/Accession
Afghanistan 4 February 1985 1 April 1987
Albania - 11 May 1994
Algeria 26 November 1985 12 September 1989
Andorra 5 August 2002 22 September 2006
Antigua and Barbuda - 19 July 1993
Argentina 4 February 1985 24 September 1986
Armenia - 13 September 1993
Australia 10 December 1985 8 August 1989
Austria 14 March 1985 29 July 1987
Azerbaijan - 16 August 1996
Bahamas 16 December 2008 -
Bahrain - 6 March 1998
Bangladesh - 5 October 1998
Belarus 19 December 1985 13 March 1987
Belgium 4 February 1985 25 June 1999
Belize - 17 March 1986
Benin - 12 March 1992
Bolivia 4 February 1985 12 April 1999
Bosnia and Herzegovina - 1 September 1993
Botswana 8 September 2000 8 September 2000
Brazil 23 September 1985 28 September 1989
Bulgaria 10 June 1986 16 December 1986
Burkina Faso - 4 January 1999
Burundi - 18 February 1993
Cambodia - 15 October 1992
Cameroon - 19 December 1986
Canada 23 August 1985 24 June 1987
Cape Verde - 4 June 1992
Chad - 9 June 1995
Chile 23 September 1987 30 September 1988
China 12 December 1986 4 October 1988
Colombia 10 April 1985 8 December 1987
Comoros 22 September 2000 -
Congo - 30 July 2003
Costa Rica 4 February 1985 11 November 1993
Ivory Coast - 18 December 1995
Croatia - 12 October 1992
Cuba 27 January 1986 17 May 1995
Cyprus 9 October 1985 18 July 1991
Czech Republic - 22 February 1993
Democratic Republic of the Congo - 18 March 1996
Denmark 4 February 1985 27 May 1987
Djibouti - 5 November 2002
Dominican Republic 4 February 1985 -
Ecuador 4 February 1985 30 March 1988
Egypt - 25 June 1986
El Salvador - 17 June 1996
Equatorial Guinea - 8 October 2002
Estonia - 21 October 1991
Ethiopia - 14 March 1994
Finland 4 February 1985 30 August 1989
France 4 February 1985 18 February 1986
Gabon 21 January 1986 8 September 2000
Gambia 23 October 1985 -
Georgia - 26 October 1994
Germany 13 October 1986 1 October 1990
Ghana 7 September 2000 7 September 2000
Greece 4 February 1985 6 October 1988
Guatemala - 5 January 1990
Guinea 30 May 1986 10 October 1989
Guinea Bissau 12 September 2000 -
Guyana 25 January 1988 19 May 1988
Holy See - 26 June 2002
Honduras - 5 December 1996
Hungary 28 November 1986 15 April 1987
Iceland 4 February 1985 23 October 1998
Iraq - 7 July 2011
Ireland 28 September 1992 11 April 2002
Israel 22 October 1986 3 October 1991
Italy 4 February 1985 12 January 1989
Japan - 29 June 1999
Jordan - 13 November 1991
Kazakhstan - 26 August 1998
Kenya - 21 February 1997
Kuwait - 8 March 1996
Kyrgyzstan - 5 September 1997
Lao People's Democratic Republic 21 September 2010 -
Latvia - 14 April 1992
Lebanon - 5 October 2000
Lesotho - 12 November 2001
Liberia - 22 September 2004
Libyan Ara Jamahiriya - 16 May 1989
Liechtenstien 27 June 1985 2 November 1990
Lithuania - 1 February 1996
Luxembourg 22 February 1985 29 September 1987
Magadascar 1 October 2001 13 December 2005
Malawi - 11 June 1996
Maldives - 20 April 2004
Mali - 26 February 1999
Malta - 13 September 1990
Mauritania - 17 November 2004
Mexico 18 March 1985 23 January 1986
Monaco - 6 December 1991
Mongolia - 24 January 2002
Montenegro - 23 October 2006
Morocco 8 January 1986 21 June 1993
Mozambique - 14 September 1999
Namibia - 28 November 1994
Naura 12 November 2001 -
Nepal - 14 May 1991
Netherlands 4 February 1985 21 December 1988
New Zealand 14 January 1986 10 December 1989
Nicaragua 15 April 1985 5 July 2005
Niger - 5 October 1998
Nigeria 28 July 1988 28 June 2001
Norway 4 February 1985 9 July 1986
Pakistan 17 April 2008 23 June 2010
Palau 20 September 2011 -
Panama 22 February 1985 24 August 1987
Paraguay 23 October 1989 12 March 1990
Peru 29 May 1985 7 July 1988
Philippines - 18 June 1986
Poland 13 January 1986 26 July 1989
Portugal 4 February 1985 9 February 1989
Qatar - 11 January 2000
Republic of Korea - 9 January 1995
Republic of Moldova - 28 November 1995
Romania - 18 December 1990
Russian Federation 10 December 1985 3 March 1987
Rwanda - 15 December 2008
San Marino 18 September 2002 27 November 2006
Sao Tome and Principe 6 September 2000 -
Saudi Arabia - 23 September 1997
Senegal 4 February 1985 21 August 1986
Serbia - 12 March 2001
Seychelles - 5 May 1992
Sierra Leone 18 March 1985 25 April 2001
Slovakia - 28 May 1993
Slovenia - 16 July 1993
Somalia - 24 January 1990
South Africa 29 January 1993 10December1998
Spain 4 February 1985 21 October 1987
Sri Lanka - 3 January 1994
St Vincent and the Grenadines - 1 August 2001
Sudan 4 June 1986 -
Swaziland - 26 March 2004
Sweden 4 February 1985 8 January 1986
Switzerland 4 February 1985 2 December 1986
Syrian Arab Republic - 19 August 2004
Tajikistan - 11 January 1995
Thailand - 2 October 2007
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia - 12 December 1994
Timor Leste - 16 April 2003
Togo 25 March 1987 18 November 1987
Tunisia 26 August 1987 23 September 1988
Turkey 25 January 1988 2 August 1988
Turkmenistan - 25 June 1999
Uganda - 3 November 1986
Ukraine 27 February 1986 24 February 1987
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 15 March 1985 8 December 1988
United State of America 18 April 1988 21 October 1994
Uruguay 4 February 1985 24 October 1986
Uzbekistan - 28 September 1995
Vanuatu - 12 July 2011
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 15 February 1985 29 July 1991
Yemen - 5 November 1991
Zambia - 7 October 1998


See International Law