International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
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Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly Resolution 2200A (XXI), on December 16, 1966. Entered into force on March 23, 1976.
Relevant Provisions of the ICCPR
1. Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to respect and to ensure to all individuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction the rights recognized in the present Covenant, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.
3. Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes:
(a) To ensure that any person whose rights or freedoms as herein recognized are violated shall have an effective remedy, notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by persons acting in an official capacity;
(b) To ensure that any person claiming such a remedy shall have his right thereto determined by competent judicial, administrative or legislative authorities, or by any other competent authority provided for by the legal system of the State, and to develop the possibilities of judicial remedy;
(c) To ensure that the competent authorities shall enforce such remedies when granted.
Right to life. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life.
Prohibition of torture or curel, inhuman or degrading tratment or punishment.
1. Right to liberty and security of the person. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention. No one shall be deprived of his liberty except on such grounds and in accordance with such procedure as are established by law.
2. Anyone who is arrested shall be informed, at the time of arrest, of the reasons for his arrest and shall be promptly informed of any charges against him.
3. Anyone arrested or detained on a criminal charge shall be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorized by law to exercise judicial power and shall be entitled to trial within a reasonable time or to release. It shall not be the general rule that persons awaiting trial shall be detained in custody, but release may be subject to guarantees to appear for trial, at any other stage of the judicial proceedings, and, should occasion arise, for execution of the judgement.
4. Anyone who is deprived of his liberty by arrest or detention shall be entitled to take proceedings before a court, in order that that court may decide without delay on the lawfulness of his detention and order his release if the detention is not lawful.
5. Anyone who has been the victim of unlawful arrest or detention shall have an enforceable right to compensation.
1. All persons deprived of their liberty shall be treated with humanity and with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person.
(a) Accused persons shall, save in exceptional circumstances, be segregated from convicted persons and shall be subject to separate treatment appropriate to their status as unconvicted persons;
(b) Accused juvenile persons shall be separated from adults and brought as speedily as possible for adjudication.
3. The penitentiary system shall comprise treatment of prisoners the essential aim of which shall be their reformation and social rehabilitation. Juvenile offenders shall be segregated from adults and be accorded treatment appropriate to their age and legal status.
1. All persons shall be equal before the courts and tribunals. In the determination of any criminal charge against him, or of his rights and obligations in a suit at law, everyone shall be entitled to a fair and public hearing by a competent, independent and impartial tribunal established by law. The press and the public may be excluded from all or part of a trial for reasons of morals, public order (ordre public) or national security in a democratic society, or when the interest of the private lives of the parties so requires, or to the extent strictly necessary in the opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interests of justice; but any judgement rendered in a criminal case or in a suit at law shall be made public except where the interest of juvenile persons otherwise requires or the proceedings concern matrimonial disputes or the guardianship of children.
2. Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall have the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law.
3. In the determination of any criminal charge against him, everyone shall be entitled to the following minimum guarantees, in full equality:
(a) To be informed promptly and in detail in a language which he understands of the nature and cause of the charge against him;
(b) To have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence and to communicate with counsel of his own choosing;
(c) To be tried without undue delay;
(d) To be tried in his presence, and to defend himself in person or through legal assistance of his own choosing; to be informed, if he does not have legal assistance, of this right; and to have legal assistance assigned to him, in any case where the interests of justice so require, and without payment by him in any such case if he does not have sufficient means to pay for it;
(e) To examine, or have examined, the witnesses against him and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against him;
(f) To have the free assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand or speak the language used in court;
(g) Not to be compelled to testify against himself or to confess guilt.
4. In the case of juvenile persons, the procedure shall be such as will take account of their age and the desirability of promoting their rehabilitation.
5. Everyone convicted of a crime shall have the right to his conviction and sentence being reviewed by a higher tribunal according to law.
6. When a person has by a final decision been convicted of a criminal offence and when subsequently his conviction has been reversed or he has been pardoned on the ground that a new or newly discovered fact shows conclusively that there has been a miscarriage of justice, the person who has suffered punishment as a result of such conviction shall be compensated according to law, unless it is proved that the non-disclosure of the unknown fact in time is wholly or partly attributable to him.
7. No one shall be liable to be tried or punished again for an offence for which he has already been finally convicted or acquitted in accordance with the law and penal procedure of each country.
1 . No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time when the criminal offence was committed. If, subsequent to the commission of the offence, provision is made by law for the imposition of the lighter penalty, the offender shall benefit thereby.
2. Nothing in this article shall prejudice the trial and punishment of any person for any act or omission which, at the time when it was committed, was criminal according to the general principles of law recognized by the community of nations.
Right to be recognized everywhere as a person before the law.
1. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation.
2. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
Right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.
Freedom of opinion.
Right of peaceful assembly.
Right to freedom of association with others, right to form trade unions.
Every citizen shall have the right to take part in the conduct of public affairs. Right to equal access to public service in his country.
All persons are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to the equal protection of the law. In this respect, the law shall prohibit any discrimination and guarantee to all persons equal and effective protection against discrimination on any ground such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.
Status of Signature, Ratification, Accession to the ICCPR
|Afghanistan||-||24 January 1983|
|Albania||-||4 October 1991|
|Algeria||10 December 1968||12 September 1989|
|Andorra||5 August 2002||22 September 2006|
|Angola||-||10 January 1992|
|Argentina||19 February 1968||8 August 1986|
|Armenia||-||23 June 1993|
|Australia||18 December 1972||13 August 1980|
|Austria||10 December 1973||10 December 1978|
|Azerbaijan||-||13 August 1992|
|Bahamas||4 December 2008||23 December 2008|
|Bahrain||-||20 September 2006|
|Bangladesh||-||6 September 2000|
|Barbardos||-||5 January 1973|
|Belarus||19 March 1968||12 November 1973|
|Belgium||10 December 1968||21 April 1983|
|Belize||-||10 June 1996|
|Benin||-||12 March 1992|
|Bolivia||-||12 August 1982|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||-||1 September 1993|
|Botswana||8 September 2000||8 September 2000|
|Brazil||-||24 January 1992|
|Bulgaria||8 October 1968||21 September 1970|
|Burkina Faso||-||4 January 1999|
|Burundi||-||9 May 1990|
|Cambodia||17 October 1980||26 May 1992|
|Cameroon||-||27 June 1984|
|Canada||-||19 May 1976|
|Cape Verde||-||6 August 1993|
|Central African Republic||-||8 May 1981|
|Chad||-||9 June 1995|
|Chile||16 September 1969||10 February 1972|
|China||5 October 1998||-|
|Colombia||21 December 1966||29 October 1969|
|Comoros||25 September 2008||-|
|Congo||-||5 October 1983|
|Costa Rica||19 December 1966||29 November 1968|
|Côte d'Ivoire||-||26 March 1992|
|Croatia||-||12 October 1992|
|Cuba||28 February 2008||-|
|Cyprus||19 December 1966||15 April 1992|
|Czech Republic||-||22 February 1993|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||-||14 September 1981|
|Denmark||20 March 1968||6 January 1972|
|Djibouti||-||5 November 2002|
|Dominica||-||17 June 1993|
|Dominican Republic||-||4 January 1978|
|Ecuador||4 April 1968||6 March 1969|
|Egypt||4 August 1967||14 January 1982|
|El Salvador||21 September 1967||30 November 1979|
|Equatorial Guinea||-||25 September 1987|
|Eritrea||-||22 January 2002|
|Estonia||-||21 October 1991|
|Ethiopia||-||11 June 1993|
|Finland||11 October 1967||19 August 1975|
|France||-||4 November 1980|
|Gabon||-||21 January 1983|
|Gambia||-||22 March 1979|
|Georgia||-||3 May 1994|
|Germany||9 October 1968||17 December 1973|
|Ghana||7 September 2000||7 September 2000|
|Greece||-||5 May 1997|
|Grenada||-||6 September 1991|
|Guatemala||-||5 May 1992|
|Guinea||28 February 1967||24 January 1978|
|Guinea Bissau||12 September 2000||1 November 2010|
|Guyana||22 August 1968||15 February 1977|
|Haiti||-||6 February 1991|
|Honduras||19 December 1966||25 August 1997|
|Hungary||25 March 1969||17 January 1974|
|Iceland||30 December 1968||22 August 1979|
|India||-||10 April 1979|
|Indonesia||-||23 February 2006|
|Iran||4 April 1968||24 June 1975|
|Iraq||18 February 1969||25 January 1971|
|Ireland||1 October 1973||8 December 1989|
|Israel||19 December 1966||3 October 1991|
|Italy||18 January 1967||15 September 1978|
|Jamaica||19 December 1966||3 October 1975|
|Japan||30 May 1978||21 June 1979|
|Jordan||30 June 1972||28 May 1975|
|Kazakhstan||2 December 2003||24 January 2006|
|Kenya||-||1 May 1972|
|Kuwait||-||21 May 1996|
|Kyrgyzstan||-||7 October 1994|
|Lao People's Democratic Republic||7 December 2000||25 September 2009|
|Latvia||-||14 April 1994|
|Lebanon||-||3 November 1972|
|Lesotho||-||9 September 1992|
|Liberia||18 April 1967||22 September 2004|
|Libyan Ara Jamahiriya||-||15 May 1970|
|Liechtenstien||-||10 December 1998|
|Lithuania||-||20 November 1991|
|Luxembourg||26 November 1974||18 August 1983|
|Magadascar||17 September 1969||21 June 1971|
|Malawi||-||22 December 1993|
|Maldives||-||19 September 2006|
|Mali||-||16 July 1974|
|Malta||-||13 September 1990|
|Mauritania||-||17 November 2004|
|Mauritius||-||12 December 1973|
|Mexico||-||23 March 1981|
|Monaco||26 June 1997||28 August 1997|
|Mongolia||5 June 1968||18 November 1974|
|Montenegro||-||23 October 2006|
|Morocco||19 January 1977||3 May 1979|
|Mozambique||-||21 July 1993|
|Namibia||-||28 November 1994|
|Nauru||12 November 2001||-|
|Nepal||-||14 May 1991|
|Netherlands||25 June 1969||11 December 1978|
|New Zealand||12 November 1968||28 December 1979|
|Nicaragua||-||12 March 1980|
|Niger||-||7 March 1986|
|Nigeria||-||29 July 1993|
|Norway||20 March 1968||13 September 1972|
|Pakistan||17 April 2008||23 June 2010|
|Palau||20 September 2011||-|
|Panama||27 July 1976||8 March 1977|
|Papua New Guinea||-||21 July 2008|
|Paraguay||-||10 June 1992|
|Peru||11 August 1977||28 April 1978|
|Philippines||19 December 1966||23 October 1986|
|Poland||2 March 1967||18 March 1977|
|Portugal||7 October 1976||15 June 1978|
|Republic of Korea||-||10 April 1990|
|Republic of Moldova||-||26 January 1993|
|Romania||27 June 1968||9 December 1974|
|Russian Federation||18 March 1968||16 October 1973|
|Rwanda||-||16 April 1975|
|Samoa||-||15 February 2008|
|San Marino||-||18 October 1985|
|Sao Tome and Principe||31 October 1995||-|
|Senegal||6 July 1970||13 February 1978|
|Serbia||-||12 March 2001|
|Seychelles||-||5 May 1992|
|Sierra Leone||-||23 August 1996|
|Slovakia||-||28 May 1993|
|Slovenia||-||6 July 1992|
|Somalia||-||24 January 1990|
|South Africa||3 October 1994||10 December 1998|
|Spain||28 September 1976||27 April 1977|
|Sri Lanka||-||11 June 1980|
|St Lucia||22 September 2011||-|
|St Vincent and the Grenadines||-||9 November 1981|
|Sudan||-||18 March 1986|
|Suriname||-||28 December 1976|
|Swaziland||-||26 March 2004|
|Sweden||29 September 1967||6 December 1971|
|Switzerland||-||18 June 1992|
|Syrian Arab Republic||-||21 April 1969|
|Tajikistan||-||4 January 1999|
|Thailand||-||29 October 1996|
|The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia||-||18 January 1994|
|Timor Leste||-||18 September 2003|
|Togo||-||24 May 1984|
|Trinidad and Tobago||-||21 December 1978|
|Tunisia||30 April 1968||18 March 1969|
|Turkey||15 August 2000||23 September 2003|
|Turkmenistan||-||1 May 1997|
|Uganda||-||21 June 1995|
|Ukraine||20 March 1968||12 November 1973|
|United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||16 September 1968||20 May 1976|
|United Republic of Tanzania||-||11 June 1976|
|United States of America||5 October 1977||8 June 1992|
|Uruguay||21 February 1967||1 April 1970|
|Uzbekistan||-||28 September 1995|
|Vanuatu||29 November 2007||21 November 2008|
|Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)||24 June 1969||10 May 1978|
|Viet Nam||-||24 September 1982|
|Yemen||-||9 February 1987|
|Zambia||-||10 April 1984|
|Zimbabwe||-||13 May 1991|